Contents # 6/2020

■ STATE AND LAW IN MODERN WORLD: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND HISTORY

On the Post-jurisprudence Issues: Topical Remarks  Pdf 16

A. A. Klishin

A. A. Klishin
Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow 119454, Russian Federation
E-mail: office@klishin.ru

Abstract. The article contains a comprehensive view of the phenomenon in the legal spheres of the contemporary states that manifested itself most vividly in the course of the quarantine measures taken during the 2020 pandemic. Such measures considerably narrows areas of application of the traditional legal mechanisms and gives way to simplified procedures, which duration and toughness is not fully governed by any legislative acts and is totally dependent on the discretion of the executive branch of governments.
The author analyzes the situation where law, which faces pressure from various participants of social relationships in specific countries at national and international levels, responds to or, as the author says, “revenges” for its infringement. The article dwells upon the reaction of the law to the dissemination of non-legal ways of responding to various social processes and the generation of the so-called “virusprudence”. The analysis is based on the example of the crisis caused by the 2020 pandemic being especially cumbersome for the Russian national economy due to the fact that the regulatory enactments adopted in the last six years, as well as the intensive application of non-legal, supervisory and controlling measures deprive this economy of its inherent resources required for a quick comeback to its proportional development and sustainable growth.
The author comes to the overall conclusion, according to which the development of new technological paradigms, the changes in the global structure of international relations and the formerly unknown environmental and sanitary challenges necessitate the accelerated revision of numerous domestic and international legal standards and the formation of the adequate legal instruments required for the development of safe and equitable international cooperation.

Keywords: social development, post-jurisprudence, revenge of law, legal nihilism, legal technology, supremacy of law, philosophy of law, philosophy of action, categories of jurisprudence, perplexity of law.

For citation: Klishin A. A. On the Post-jurisprudence Issues: Topical Remarks. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 5—19. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.049

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Fukuyama F. Nashe postchelovecheskoe budushchee. Moscow, 2004.

Gadzhiev G. A. Yuridicheskaya kartina mira. St. Petersburg, 2016.

Gegel’ G. V. F. Filosofiya prava. Moscow, 1990.

Khabrieva T. Y. Cyclic Normative Arrays in Law. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 12, pp. 5—18. (In Russ.). DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.12.1

Krasheninnikov P. V. Strasti po pravu. Moscow, 2019.

Lenin V. I. Gosudarstvo i revolyutsiya. Petrograd, 1919.

Leyst O. E. Sushchnost’ prava. Problemy teorii i filosofii prava. Moscow, 2011.

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Rakhmanov A. B. Sotsial’naya filosofiya K. Marksa i F. Engel’sa. Moscow, 2012.

Skorobogatov V. Yu. Predely prava i paradoksy pravovogo regulirovaniya. Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2020, no. 1.

Solov’ev V. S. Pravo est’ nizshiy predel ili opredelennyy uroven’ nravstvennosti. Opravdanie dobra. Sochineniya. Vol. 1. Moscow, 1988.

Stepin V. S. Chelovek. Deyatel’nost’. Kul’tura. St. Petersburg, 2018.

Transformatsiya paradigmy prava v tsivilizatsionnom razvitii chelovechestva: doklady chlenov RAN. Moscow, 2019.

Vedeneev Yu. A. Smena geshtal’ta: yurisprudentsiya v epokhu peremen. Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2020, no. 1; no. 2.

Zor’kin V. D. Sut’ prava. Voprosy filosofii, 2018, no. 1.

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■ COMPARATIVE RESEARCHES OF CRIMINAL LAW, CRIMINOLOGY AND CRIMINAL EXECUTIVE LAW

Implementation of International Principles and Standards for the Protection of Child Victims and Witnesses of Crimes in the Criminal Procedure Legislation of Russia  Pdf 16

O. A. Zaytsev, A. Yu. Epikhin, E. P. Grishina

O. A. Zaytseva, A. Yu. Epikhinb, E. P. Grishinac
aInstitute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
bKazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russian Federation
cMoscow Pedagogical State University, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation
E-mail: crim@izak.ru; doc@epihin.ru; Grishina.K.ru@yandex.ru

Abstract. Based on the doctrinal and comparative analysis of international and domestic Russian normative legal acts, the European Court of Human Rights, the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and the documents on national judicial practice, the main urgent problems of protecting the rights and legitimate interests of child victims as crime witnesses are presented.
The purpose of the study is to develop scientifically grounded and acceptable for the national legal system of Russia directions for improving the organizational and legal mechanism for protecting the rights of juvenile victims and witnesses, consistent with international principles and standards of the legal status of participants in criminal proceedings. Research objectives are: comparative legal study of international regulatory documents and Russian legislation, as well as law enforcement practice in ensuring and protecting the rights of minors in criminal proceedings, identifying the shortcomings and costs of legal regulation and substantiating the prospects for improving national legislation in solving the problem posed.
Research methods are: dialectical, epistemological, philosophical, formal-logical, system-structural, comparative-legal, law-modelling and prognostic methods.
Proposals are formulated to improve the existing organizational and legal mechanism for protecting the rights of minors in criminal proceedings. Special attention is paid to the legal protection of child victims of abuse directed against the sexual inviolability of minors. The authors come to the conclusion that the implementation of the provisions of international normative documents in the human rights field is a rather long historical process that involves a critical assessment of stereotypes of domestic regulation. It also creates the necessary conditions for the implementation of international standards and principles of personal protection in judicial and law enforcement activities, as well as identifies promising the law-making directions.

Keywords: international principles and standards, juvenile victims and witnesses, state protection, security measures.

For citation: Zaytsev O. A., Epikhin A. Yu., Grishina E. P. Implementation of International Principles and Standards for the Protection of Child Victims and Witnesses of Crimes in the Criminal Procedure Legislation of Russia. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 20—33. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.050

References

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Belyakova A. V. Judicial Practice on Certain Categories of Cases in the Context of Legal Monitoring (On the Example of the Institute for the Protection of the Right to Trial Within a Reasonable Time). Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 6, pp. 127—141. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.9

Compensation for material damage to victims. Comparative legal research. Ed. by S. P. Kubantsev. Moscow, 2016. 304 p. (In Russ.)

Constitution of the Russian Federation: from the image of the future to reality (to the 20th anniversary of the Basic Law of Russia). Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva. Moscow, 2013. 587 p. (In Russ.)

Epihin A. Y., Zaitsev O. A., Grishina E. P., Mishin A. V., Aliyeva G. I. Legal protection of juvenile victims (child victims) from crime. Reviews in the Humanities and Social Sciences, 2019, no. 7 (5).

Epikhin A. Yu. Legal bases of personal security and criminal proceedings in separate international documents. Mezhdunarodnoe ugolovnoe pravo i mezhdunarodnaya yustitsiya, 2012, no. 2, pp. 12—14. (In Russ.)

Epikhin A. Yu., Mishin A. V. Ensuring the safety of persons assisting in criminal proceedings. Kazan', 2018. 152 p. (In Russ.)

Epikhin A. Yu., Mishin A. V. Features of ensuring the safety of victims and witnesses in criminal proceedings. Sbornik materialov mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. Moscow, 2016. Pp. 108—111. (In Russ.)

Epikhin A., Zaytsev O. The subject matter of criminal evidence relating to the disclosure of information on security measures applicable to law enforcement of control official. Internal Security, 2018, vol. 10, iss. 1.

Fokin E. A. Venice Commission on the Problems of Justice in the Modern World: Research Continues. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 2, pp. 130—136. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.18

Golovanova N. A. Domestic Violence in the Light of the Istanbul Convention (2011). Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2014, no. 3, pp. 555—562. (In Russ.)

Grishina E. P. Conceptual and legal problems of using special knowledge in criminal proceedings in Russia. Moscow, 2018. 320 p. (In Russ.)

Grishina E. P. Ensuring the welfare of minors as the goal of justice in criminal proceedings. Voprosy yuvenal'noy yustitsii, 2017, no. 1, pp. 12—15. (In Russ.)

Grishina E. P. Influence of international legal norms on the reform of Russian criminal proceedings against minors. Voprosy yuvenal'noy yustitsii, 2016, no. 4, pp. 8—11. (In Russ.)

Grishina E. P. Lawyer in criminal proceedings. Moscow, 2020. 168 p. (in Russ.)

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Kerner H.-J. International Handbook of Juvenile Justice. Ed. by J. Junger-Tas, S. H. Decker. Dordrecht, 2006. 549 p.

Khabrieva T. Y. Selected works. Vol. 2: Legal protection Constitutionals. Moscow, 2018. 448 p. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. The Venice Commission as a subject of interpretation of law. Moscow, 2018. 344 p. (In Russ.)

Legal protection of victims in foreign countries. Ed. by S. P. Kubantsev. Moscow, 2017. 304 p. (In Russ.)

Markus E. Witness Protection Measures at the International Criminal Court: Legal Framework and Emerging Practice. Criminal Law Forum, 2012, no. 1.

Osheev A. V. Security juvenile participants in criminal proceedings. Aktual'nye problemy gosudarstva i obshchestva v oblasti obespecheniya prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina, 2018, no. 4, pp. 242—246. (In Russ.)

Varinder S. Witness protection in India: the judicial endeavour. International Journal of Advanced Research, 2016, no. 1.

Volodina L. M. Problems of the criminal process: law, theory and practice. Moscow, 2006. 352 p. (In Russ.)

Zaytsev O. A. Informing victims about making criminal procedural decisions. Probely v rossiyskom zakonodatel'stve, 2012, no. 2, pp. 166—167. (In Russ.)

Zaytsev O. A. Main directions of improvement of criminal procedure legislation. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta MVD Rossii, 2016, no. 4, pp. 67—69. (In Russ.)

Zaytsev O. A. On the implementation of the modern criminal procedure policy of the Russian Federation. Probely v rossiyskom zakonodatel'stve, 2012, no. 5, pp. 152—156. (In Russ.)

Zaytsev O. A., Rudich V. V. International legal principles and standards of fair criminal proceedings. Mezhdunarodnoe ugolovnoe pravo i mezhdunarodnaya yustitsiya, 2014, no. 4, pp. 3—5. (In Russ.)

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“Digital” Element of Crimes as Vector of Criminalization (Comparative Review of Approaches of CIS Member States)  Pdf 16

O. I. Semykina, R. N. Klyuchko

O. I. Semykinaa, R. N. Klyuchkob
aInstitute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
bYanka Kupala State University of Grodno, Grodno 230023, Republic of Belarus
E-mail: semykola@yandex.ru; klrn.grodno@tut.by

Abstract. Digital technologies that create tremendous opportunities to increase the speed and change forms of information interaction between various subjects of public relations (informatization), give rise to a change in their content. The search, receipt, transfer, collection, processing, accumulation, storage, distribution, provision, use and protection of information, the use of digital and other telecommunication technologies for these same actions have formed a “super-institute” of information relations that requires adequate measures of protection against unlawful influence and respect for confidentiality. The legal regulation of information relations should ensure their development, taking into account the needs of various entities (individuals, legal persons, society, state, international community), and the criminal law protection should ensure the information security and information sovereignty of the relevant entities, preventing of violations of the legal status of relevant entities and opposition to the use of “digital” objects for criminal purposes.
Intensive digital transformation is changing the way we understand, first of all, information security. Today information security firstly is an integral element of informational relations. Secondly, it is associated with ensuring information sovereignty and thirdly it acts as an additional object of all crimes against the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of individuals, society and the state, committed through digital exposure. This understanding of information security allows the authors to propose adjustments to the criminal law model for CIS Member-States and the criminal laws of some members of this integration association (for example, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus) regarding the revision of approaches to determining the object of criminal law protection from cybercrimes “in pure form”.
The research is based on comparative, analytical and extrapolation methods. the article highlights the features of criminalization in the Model Criminal Code for the CIS member states and in the national criminal codes of the respective countries of two groups of criminal offenses - cyber offenses and informational offenses. The authors pay special attention to establishing responsibility for those acts, which include the designated groups of criminal offenses. They also have the necessary level of innovation and meet global challenges and threats from the justification of destructive ideology and disturbances in public order.

Keywords: criminal code, model law, cybercrime, informational crime, informational relations, informational security, informational sovereignty, destructive informational and telecommunication influence, “digital” sign of crime.

For citation: Semykina O. I., Klyuchko R. N. “Digital” Element of Crimes as Vector of Criminalization (Comparative Review of Approaches of CIS Member States). Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 34—52. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.051

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Criminal Proceedings in Liechtenstein: Evidence and Proof, Investigative Actions, Coercive Measures  Pdf 16

A. A. Trefilov

A. A. Trefilov
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: trefilovaa1989@gmail.com

Abstract. Unfortunately, at present, Russian science does not have any independent work dedicated to the criminal process in the legal system under consideration. In this scientific article, the author considers the institution of proof in the criminal proceedings of the Principality of Liechtenstein on the basis of normative and doctrinal sources. The article considers the subject of proof (the circumstances that must be established during the proceedings), the subjects of proof (the court, the Prosecutor's office, the police), the structure of evidence (collection and evaluation of evidence), the problem of prejudice, which is important for both criminal and other types of judicial process.
It is proved that in criminal proceedings in Liechtenstein there is a classic continental model of criminal procedure evidence (close to the one provided for in the Criminal procedure codes of Germany, Switzerland, and Austria). It is shown that, as in most continental legal systems, Liechtenstein has a model of “proof through prohibition”, in which any investigative actions are allowed, even if they are not provided for by law, unless they violate the prohibitions provided for in the code of Criminal procedure. The defender is not recognized as a subject of proof, since he does not have state authority. It is shown that the Liechtenstein code of Criminal procedure and the police Law provide for a wide range of coercive measures aimed at ensuring that participants in criminal proceedings properly perform their procedural duties. These measures can be divided into two groups: detention and alternative, more lenient coercive measures (bail, surety, prohibition of certain actions, etc.). The study of current statistical data published on the Liechtenstein legal portal shows that in the Principality, the criminal justice authorities rarely choose a coercive measure in the form of detention, and the law enforcement officer emphasizes more lenient measures. The prohibition of certain actions (leaving the home, communicating with certain persons, driving a vehicle, etc.) also contributes to the proper execution of the accused's procedural obligations without isolating them from society.

Keywords: criminal procedure, evidence, investigative actions, measures of procedural coercion, Criminal procedure code, police law, Liechtenstein.

For citation: Trefilov A. A. Criminal Proceedings in Liechtenstein: Evidence and Proof, Investigative Actions, Coercive Measures. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 53—66. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.052

References

Serebrennikova A. V., Trefilov A. A. Offences against the Person under the Criminal Code of the Principality of Liechtenstein. Lex russica, 2016, no. 12, pp. 113—124. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.17803/1729-5920.2016.121.12.113-124

Trefilov A. A. Ugolovno-protsessual'nyy kodeks Likhtenshteyna: kommentariy i perevod. Moscow, 2012.

Tschaikner M. Hexenverfolgun in Triesen. Neue Erkenntnisse über die Hexenprozesse der Frühneuzeit in: Triesen. Informationen und Mitteilungen aus der Gemeinde. Ausgabe 125. Januar 1998, no. 30. Jahrgang. Pp. 1—14.

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■ CIVIL LAW. ENTREPRENEURIAL LAW. FAMILY LAW. PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

Modern Problems of Succession Law in Foreign Jurisdictions  Pdf 16

O. M. Sakovich, S. V. Solovieva, O. А. Ternovaya, S. S. Shcherbak

O. M. Sakovich, S. V. Solovieva, O. А. Ternovaya, S. S. Shcherbak
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: foreign3@izak.ru

Abstract. The present article is devoted to comparative-legal research of particular institutions of succession law in the USA and some European jurisdictions (Czech Republic, France, Germany). The topic of this article is chosen because of significant legislative amendments in recent years. For example, the EU is experiencing an ongoing modernization of law of succession. Another tendency is the harmonization of European succession law due to the adoption of Regulation (EU) No. 650/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012. However, several jurisdictions still have their own specifics, most typically the oldest EU members with deeply-rooted law of succession. For example, France has a unique form of testamentary arrangement called “contractual testament” (l'institution contractuelle), under which an estate can be acquired by either universal or singular succession of title. The USA is experiencing an intensive ongoing harmonization of succession law, which resulted in an adoption of several uniform acts which are subsequently united in the Uniform Probate Code which has been yet recognized by only 24 states. The other states have their own succession acts which are not much different from the provision of the Uniform Probate Code, but, nevertheless, certain inconsistencies regarding forms and types of last wills still exist. In the course of the research, the authors have concentrated their attention on distinctions and tendencies of succession law development. Particularly interesting matters are legislative approaches towards such traditional institutes of succession law as testament, testamentary contract, mutual wills, legacy. That's why the authors decide to pay more attention to the latest and the most interesting solutions reflected in the aforementioned jurisdictions. Thus, wills, their forms and methods of estate administration are analyzed on the example of USA and France. In this regard, various forms of wills, the order of drafting are investigated. On the example of the new Civil Code of the Czech Republic inheritance contracts of spouses and future spouses are studied. The relevance of this study is due to the lack of comparative legal research on the regulation of inheritance in foreign countries, as well as the ongoing process of legislative reform.
The study of foreign experience, of course, can become a fundamental platform for improving the architecture of Russian legislation on inheritance.

Keywords: will, law of succession, testamentary contract, heir, testate, estate, forms of wills, civil law notary, notarial form, blanket form, forced heir, civil code, universal succession, legacy, devise, codicil.

For citation: Sakovich O. M., Solovieva S. V., Ternovaya O. А., Shcherbak S. S. Modern Problems of Succession Law in Foreign Jurisdictions. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 67—80. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.053

References

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Comparative Law: National Legal Systems. Legal systems of Western Europe. Ed. by V. I. Lafitskiy. Moscow, 2012, vol. 2. 768 p. (In Russ.)

Constitutions of foreign states. Ed. by V. V. Maklakov. 4th ed. Moscow, 2003. (In Russ.)

Fundamentals of inheritance law in Russia, Germany, France. Ed. by E. Yu. Petrov. Moscow, 2015. 271 p. (In Russ.)

German Civil Code: Introductory Law to the Civil Code. 4th ed. Moscow, 2015. (In Russ.)

Klein Š. Quo vadis, dědická smlouvo. Available at: https://www.nkcr.cz/casopis-ad-notam/detail/39_554-quo-vadis-dedicka-smlouvo.

Kusitzky A. Ihr Wille geschehe. Focus. Februar 2007, no. 5, pp. 112—115.

Mat'e M.-L., Rostovtseva N. V. Inheritance by law in Russia and France: a comparative study. Nasledstvennoe pravo, 2014, no. 4. (In Russ.)

Merkel H. Das gemeinschaftliche Testament. Augsburg, 1930. 106 p.

Novotny P., Novotná M. Novy občanský zákonik: Dedicke právo. Praha, 2017.

Putintseva E. P. Death orders under the laws of the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. Moscow, 2016. (In Russ.)

The main institutions of civil law in foreign countries: a comparative legal study. Ed. by V. V. Zalesskiy. Moscow, 2009. (In Russ.)

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Regulation of Unforeseen Circumstances in the Relations of Obligations in German Law  Pdf 16

A. Aliyev, R. Liebig

A. Aliyev, R. Liebig
Law School, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany
E-mail: azar.aliyev@jura.uni-halle.de

Abstract. The economic impact of the coronavirus pandemic is already compared with the results of the World War II. The world is about to face a huge wave of both national and international disputes. This paper is an attempt to launch a comparative discussion on legal regulation of unforeseen circumstances.
The first part of the study provides an overview of the individual institutions of German law regulating the future of binding relations, where the parties have encountered unforeseen circumstances. In particular, it considers the impossibility of execution, compensation for losses, refusal of the contract, and change of the basis of the transaction. Particular attention is paid to the interaction of individual institutions of the Law of Obligations with each other after the reform of this law in 2002. At the same time, the correlation of national law with EU law will be considered. The presentation of German law concludes with a brief overview of the measures taken in Germany to combat coronavirus in the field of civil law. The final comparative legal part of the article presents an analysis of certain provisions of the review adopted by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation in the field of countering the coronavirus pandemic.

Keywords: force majeure, German law, EU law, rebus sic stantibus, hardship, impossibility of performance, contract revocation, frustration.

For citation: Aliyev A., Liebig R. Regulation of Unforeseen Circumstances in the Relations of Obligations in German Law. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 81—97. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.054

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Bergmann S., Blankenburg D. Unvermeidbare außergewöhnliche Umstände im Pauschalreise- und Luftverkehrsrecht. Neue Juristische Wochenschrift, 2019, pp. 3678—3683.

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Cartwright J. Contract law: an introduction to the English law of contract for the civil lawyers. Oxford, 2016.

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Evstigneev E. A. The Problem of Dualism of Mandatory Rules in the Light of Application of the Article 168 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Answer to the Article by A. G. Karapetov and D. O. Tuzov. Vestnik grazhdanskogo prava, 2018, no. 3, pp. 7—52. (In Russ.)

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Evolution of Conflict of Laws Regulation of Tort Obligations in Israel Private International Law  Pdf 16

N. Yu. Erpyleva, I. V. Getman-Pavlova, A. S. Kasatkina

N. Yu. Erpyleva, I. V. Getman-Pavlova, A. S. Kasatkina
National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Moscow 101000, Russian Federation
E-mail: natasha.erpyleva@rambler.ru; getmanpav@mail.ru; akasatkina@hse.ru

Abstract. The research is devoted to the analysis of the evolution of conflict of laws regulation of tort obligations in Israel private international law.
The author used the traditional methodology for comparative studies-comparative analysis, comparative legal, formal logical, historical legal and dogmatic methods.
Conflict of laws issues of cross-border tort relations are not regulated at the legislative level in Israel. Conflict of laws rules of tort law are developed exclusively by judicial practice. For several decades, Israeli jurisprudence has tried to develop some general principles for determining the appropriate rules of choice of law in cross-border torts. For more than 30 years, the English common law approach has prevailed in Israel when dealing with conflict of law issues of tort obligations. However, in the 1980s, the Supreme Court of Israel expressed the official legal position that the Israeli court should have the right to independently establish conflict-of-laws regulations that differ from the rules of English common law. The English approach was replaced by the American flexible conflict methodology - the theory of “the most significant contacts”, “the state interest”, “the best law”, “the closest connection”. American conflict-of-law approaches have dominated Israeli courts for more than 20 years, but in the early 2000s, the prevailing view was that tougher and more stable rules were needed to ensure uniformity and predictability in the choice of law in torts. In the Israeli doctrine, the view is expressed that all modern rules for choosing the law applicable to torts can be found in the texts of religious Jewish law. Since the beginning of the 2000s, the European experience of regulation has been widely accepted in the judicial practice of Israel, mainly the approaches of the Rome II Regulation. Based on European models, case law has now developed a number of principles that can be invoked in Israeli courts as rules for determining the law applicable to torts. However, judicial practice continues to show instability and volatility. The article concludes that such problems could have been avoided if there was a codified legislation of the rules of choice of applicable law in Israel. The existence of an act of codification of the private international law containing clear instructions from the legislator is highly capable of ensuring the certainty and predictability of judicial decisions, their uniformity and international harmony.

Keywords: private international law, Israel, conflict of laws regulation, cross-border torts, evolution, conflict of laws approach, territorial principle, judicial practice.

For citation: Erpyleva N. Yu., Getman-Pavlova I. V., Kasatkina A. S. Evolution of Conflict of Laws Regulation of Tort Obligations in Israel Private International Law. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 98—115. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.055

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Cheshire G., North P. Cheshire's Private International Law. 10th ed. London, 1979. 724 p.

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■ INTERNATIONAL AND INTEGRATION LAW. EUROPEAN LAW

Inter-State Applications in International Courts: History and Prospects  Pdf 16

A. Ya. Kapustin, A. I. Kovler, A. M. Belyalova, Ya. I. Lebedeva, E. A. Fokin

A. Ya. Kapustin, A. I. Kovler, A. M. Belyalova, Ya. I. Lebedeva, E. A. Fokin
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: kapustin@izak.ru

Abstract. Present article is a comparative study of the practice of settlement of inter-state disputes in the main international judicial bodies. At the same time, the article aims to show that the activity of international courts to consider inter-state conflicts is historically determined. Moreover, the original conceptual purpose of international justice was exactly to resolve disputes between states.
The article reveals the approaches of the main bodies of international justice - the UN International Court of Justice, the European Court of Human Rights, courts of integration associations. Thus, the UN International Court of Justice has developed the most extensive practice of interstate disputes' settlement. The article shows the evolution of its law enforcement approaches. Special attention is paid to the comparison of the activities of the International Court of Justice with other international courts - both common features and specifics are shown. The section on the ECtHR demonstrates that there are no sufficient grounds for conclusions about the politicization of its activities for the inter-state disputes' settlement. At the same time, special attention is drawn to the somewhat alien nature of the procedure for inter-state applications for a body specializing in the protection of human rights. On the contrary, in the European Union, resolving inter-state contradictions through the Union's institutional mechanism is a top priority. However, the main principle for resolving contradictions is a lengthy pre-trial procedure in dialogue with the European Commission, and only in exceptional cases do member states meet in the EU Court of Justice.

Keywords: inter-state application, international justice, European Court of Human Rights, International Court of Justice, EU Court of Justice.

For citation: Kapustin A. Ya., Kovler A. I., Belyalova A. M., Lebedeva Ya. I., Fokin E. A. Inter-State Applications in International Courts: History and Prospects. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 116—134. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.056

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Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie kak faktor integratsii. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva, A. I. Kovler. Moscow, 2019.

Orlova E. S. Konkurentsiya yurisdiktsiy mezhdunarodnykh sudebnykh organov pri rassmotrenii mezhdunarodnykh morskikh sporov. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2020.

Pimenova S. D. Obespechitel'nye mery v praktike Mezhdunarodnogo Suda OON. Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie, 2020, no. 2 (34).

Plutarkh. Sravnitel'nye zhizneopisaniya. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Moscow, 1994.

Punzhin S. M. Procedural Law of the International Court of Justice: Provisional Measures (Part 2). Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie, 2016, no. 1, pp. 37—58. (In Russ.)

Rachkov I. V. Vsemirnaya torgovaya organizatsiya: pravo i instituty. Moscow, 2019.

Simonova N. S. Problema obyazatel'noy yurisdiktsii Mezhdunarodnogo suda OON skvoz' prizmu sposobov ee priznaniya. Mezhdunarodnoe publichnoe i chastnoe pravo, 2016, no. 4.

Smbatyan A. S. Resheniya organov mezhdunarodnogo pravosudiya v sisteme mezhdunarodnogo publichnogo prava. Moscow, 2012.

Tatsit K. Sochineniya. Vol. 1: Annaly. Malye proizvedeniya. Moscow, 1993. Book IV.

Tolstykh V. L. Mezhdunarodnye sudy i ikh praktika. Moscow, 2015.

Tolstykh V. L. The “Heavenly” and “Earthly” Life 18 of the Court of the Eurasian Economic Union: A Review of the Judgment of the Court in the Case Involving Belarus' Adherence to the Treaty on the EEU. Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie, 2017, no. 4, pp. 18—25. (In Russ.)

Vinnitskiy D. V. Mezhdunarodnoe nalogovoe pravo: problemy teorii i praktiki. Moscow, 2017.

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Commentary on the Judgment of the ECtHR Grand Chamber in the Case “Molla Sali v. Greece”  Pdf 16

D. I. Dedov, Kh. I. Hajiyev

D. I. Dedova, Kh. I. Hajiyevb
aEuropean Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg F-67075, France
bInstitute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: Dmitry.Dedov@echr.coe.int; khanlar9999@gmail.com

Abstract. The European Court of Human Rights has repeatedly stressed that democracy is a fundamental part of the European public order and that the effective functioning of democratic institutions is guaranteed by the supremacy of the principles of secularism and equality, which naturally imply the exclusion of any discrimination. In the case under review, a Muslim man bequeathed his whole estate to his wife of the same faith under a will drawn up in accordance with Greek civil law. However, the husband's sisters challenged the validity of the will claiming three-quarters of the inheritance under Sharia law. The Greek Court of Cassation overturned the judgments in favor of the widow where the courts had applied the national law, ruling that this matter had to be settled in accordance with the rules of Sharia law. The Greek Court of Cassation considered that a different decision would violate the Treaty of Lausanne, which provided for the right of a Muslim minority to resolve such disputes under Sharia law. According to the European Court, the special status of a minority cannot serve as a basis for differentiation in the application of civil law, since it violates the rights of Greek nationals prescribed by the Constitution of the State and the European Convention on Human Rights. The Court held that the national authorities had discriminated the applicant by association of the members of a religious community, which had resulted in a violation of Article 14 of the Convention read in conjunction with Article 1 of Protocol No. 1 thereto.

Keywords: religious law, treaty, will, testator, civil law, discrimination, religion, minority.

For citation: Dedov D. I., Hajiyev Kh. I. Commentary on the Judgment of the ECtHR Grand Chamber in the Case “Molla Sali v. Greece”. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 135—145. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.057

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Tsitselikis K. Seeking to Accommodate Shari'a within a Human Rights Framework: The Future of the Greek Shari'a Courts. Journal of Law and Religion, 2013, vol. 28, iss. 2.

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■ LAND, NATURAL RESOURCES, ECOLOGICAL, AGRARIAN LAW OF RUSSIA AND FOREIGN COUNTRIES

The Escazú Agreement as a New Stage in the Development of Mechanisms for the Protection of Environmental Human Rights in the Latin America and the Caribbean  Pdf 16

A. M. Solntsev, A. M. Otrashevskaya

A. M. Solntsev, A. M. Otrashevskaya
Law Institute, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow 117198, Russian Federation
E-mail: a.solntsew@gmail.com; otrashevskayan@gmail.com

Abstract. Protection of environmental human rights is extremely important for the sustainable development, the maintenance of environmental safety and for the development of democratic institutions of the society.
The purpose of the research is to identify innovative approaches to the protection of environmental human rights at the regional level through a comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms of a new regional international agreement aimed at protecting procedural environmental human rights (Escazu Agreement 2018). The article sets the following tasks: analysis of the global trend in the protection of environmental human rights; consideration of the legal positions of regional States and public representatives during the negotiations (2012-2018) on the development of the Escazu Agreement; comparative legal analysis of the Escazu Agreement 2018 and the European Aarhus Convention 1998; identification of gaps and conflicts in the context of the implementation of the obligations of States in the region under the Escazu Agreement and the Inter-American system for the protection of human rights.
Research methods: general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, generalization, dialectical), special scientific methods (comparative law, formal-logical, legal-technical analysis).
In 2012, in order to unify legal standards for the protection of environmental human rights, taking into account international standards and regional specifics, the States decided to develop a regional agreement. The following issues were resolved in the process of codification and progressive development of the Escazu Agreement: obligations of States in terms of access to information, public participation and justice in environmental matters were formulated; specific obligations of States to protect environmental human rights defenders, indigenous peoples and vulnerable groups of people have been set up; an institutional framework for the implementation of the Agreement has been established. It was found, that the contradictions between the Escazu Agreement and international standards developed within the framework of the Inter-American System for the protection of human rights in the protection of environmental human rights could take place. The Latin America and the Caribbean, in comparison with other regions of the world, are experiencing significant positive changes in terms of strengthening of international mechanisms for the protection of environmental human rights.

Keywords: environmental human rights, Escazú Agreement, Aarhus Convention, environmental defenders, indigenous peoples, vulnerable groups of people, quasi-judicial proceeding.

For citation: Solntsev A. M., Otrashevskaya A. M. The Escazú Agreement as a New Stage in the Development of Mechanisms for the Protection of Environmental Human Rights in the Latin America and the Caribbean. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 146—161. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.058

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Stec S., Jendrośka J. The Escazú Agreement and the Regional Approach to Rio Principle 10: Process, Innovation, and Shortcomings. Journal of Environmental Law, 2019, vol. 31, iss. 3, pp. 533—545.

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■ REVIEWS

In Search of a Common Denominator or Identity in Legal Development (Reflections on the Academic Textbook “Comparative Law” by A. Kh. Saidov. Moscow: Norma, 2020. 320 p.)  Pdf 16

L. F. Iskhakova

L. F. Iskhakova
National Centre of the Republic of Uzbekistan for Human Rights, Tashkent 100029, Republic of Uzbekistan
E-mail: laviza7@mail.ru

For citation: Iskhakova L. F. In Search of a Common Denominator or Identity in Legal Development (Reflections on the Academic Textbook “Comparative Law” by A. Kh. Saidov. Moscow: Norma, 2020. 320 p.). Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 6, pp. 162—163. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.059

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■ MONITORING OF THE FOREIGN COUNTRIES LEGISLATION  Pdf 16

■ NEW BOOKS  Pdf 16

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