E. S. POPOVA, associate professor of the State University of Land Use Planning, candidate of legal sciences
15, Kazakov st., Moscow, Russia, 105064
N. A. RUDNEV, postgraduate student of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
The article is devoted to historical and legal analysis and current status of forest legislation in Brazil. The article presents a brief historical overview of forest legislation in Brazil and a detailed description of the new Forest code of 2012, as a legislative act, the adoption of which is due to the deteriorating environmental situation and the necessity of its overcoming. The article describes the circumstances under which this legislation was adopt and concludes with a content analysis of the Forest code, in particular, its main principles such as the commitment of Brazil to protect its forests and other forms of natural vegetation, biodiversity, soils, water resources and the integrity of the climate system; shared responsibility of State, Federal districts and municipalities in cooperation with civil society for policy on conservation and restoration of natural vegetation and its ecological and social functions; creation and mobilization of economic incentives to encourage the preservation and restoration of natural vegetation and sustainable development of productive activities. In addition, the article reveals the purpose of the adoption of the Forest code. It is an establishment of basic rules for preservation in the sphere of forest management. The article also gives the basic terminology of the code. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the new code has politically compromise character and its partial conformity with the objectives pursued in its adoption.
Keywords: deforestation, environmental legislation, forest offences, forest protection, environment, forestry, deforestation, codification, sustainable development.