Contents # 5/2020


Legal Regulation of Genomic Research in the Russian Federation and Its Use in the Context of International Legal Standards  Pdf 16

A. E. Postnikov, E. E. Nikitina

A. E. Postnikov, E. E. Nikitina
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article is devoted to the problems related to the regulation of genomic research in the Russian Federation. The development of modern OMIX technologies creates many ethical, legal, social and cultural problems. Current issues concern not only the development of the organizational order, the implementation of genomic research or specific procedures based on the use of their results, but also the definition of general approaches to regulation, which includes its methodology. Making objectively justified legal decisions allows genomics and other related Sciences to develop freely.
The authors explore basic approaches to regulation of public relations within genomic research. The article focuses on the analysis of human rights formed in the framework of international legal relations, since the development of genomic research and the expansion of their application is a new sphere of activity. This in turn forms new threats to the personal dignity and human rights.
Based on the comparative legal method, the article concludes that there are no fundamental contradictions in the approaches of international legal acts and Russian legislation in the field of human rights protection in genomic research. At the same time, it is pointed out that specific human rights in the field of gene research are not fully reflected in the legislation of the Russian Federation. It is necessary to expand the objects of legislative regulation, in particular, the protection of the confidentiality of genetic information, the prohibition of genetic discrimination, etc. The authors draw attention to the significant normative potential of the right to enjoy the results of scientific progress and their practical application, as enshrined in article 27, paragraph 1, of the 1948 Universal Declaration of human rights of and in article 15 of the 1966 International Covenant on economic, social and cultural rights.

Keywords: human rights, genomic research, genomics, biotechnologies, gene rights.

For citation: Postnikov A. E., Nikitina E. E. Legal Regulation of Genomic Research in the Russian Federation and Its Use in the Context of International Legal Standards. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 5—20. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.038 (In Russ.)


Alimov E. V., Leshchenkov F. A. The Legal Framework for Genomic Research in the Russian Federation and Common Law Countries. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 11, pp. 43—57. DOI: 10.12737/jrl.2019.11.3 (In Russ.)

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Forms of Government in Finland: Evolution and Historical Context  Pdf 16

I. G. Shablinskiy

I. G. Shablinskiy
National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Moscow 101000, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article is devoted to the creation and evolution of the form of government of Finland, which in 2019 celebrated the 100th Anniversary of its first Constitution. It considers both historical and theoretical and comparative legal aspects. From a historical point of view, the end of the civil war of 1918 and the adoption of the Constitution of 1919 are considered as starting point for the formation of the state, and in particular it forms the government of independent Finland. The article also considers the formation of the party system and legal tools for overcoming the political division of society after the civil war. The Finnish form of government, which can be characterized as semi-presidential or mixed one, has a number of important features and institutions. A few decades later, when the semi-presidential republics have been created, the Finnish form of the government attracted the attention of state experts in a number of countries. In this context, the article also considers the reforms related to the adoption of the new Constitution of Finland in 1999. It examines in detail the differences between the Finnish form of government and similar forms of government, in particular, the French model. In contrast to France, Finland has a non-polarized, i.e. fragmented, coalition party system. Voters' sympathies, as mentioned above, are more or less evenly distributed among 5—6 political parties. In Finland a single party has never managed to win an absolute majority of seats. In this regard, the President of Finland has never acted as the leader of the parliamentary majority. The experience of Finland is quite interesting and useful for studying various options for constitutional reforms.

Keywords: Constitution of Finland, party system, semi-presidential republic, Finnish form of government, French model of form of government.

For citation: Shablinskiy I. G. Forms of Government in Finland: Evolution and Historical Context. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 21—34. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.039 (In Russ.)


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Legal Custom in the Concept of the Rule of Law in India and the South African Republic (Comparative Legal Study)  Pdf 16

S. S. Kuznetsova

S. S. Kuznetsova
Ural State Law University, Yekaterinburg 620137, Russian Federation

Abstract. The concept of the rule of law is usually considered in the framework of acts of state authorities, which formulates the criteria of legality and legal certainty. In many countries of Africa, Asia and the Caribbean a custom is based on the traditions of individual ethnic communities and still is recognized as a source of law. Its unwritten character raises the question of its ability to enforce the rule of law.
The aim of the study is to identify mechanisms to ensure the rule of law in states with existing legal customs.
Research methods: analysis, induction, deduction, systemic, formal legal and comparative legal. The study examines the concept of the rule of law in two multi-ethnic states — India and the South African Republic. It conducts a comparative legal analysis of legislation and judicial practice in order to determine the role of legal custom, the procedure for its application in the process of implementation and protection of human rights.
It is concluded that the states in question have chosen various concepts of customary law. The South African Republic has a doctrine of living customary law, which, because of its flexibility, has the potential to ensure the effective implementation of human rights. In India the concept of legal custom originates in the English legal doctrine, therefore custom as a general rule is subject to recognition by the state through its judiciary. Recognition of official customary law in India makes it possible in the simplest way to ensure compliance with such criteria of rule of law as legality and legal certainty. At the same time, the state does not completely abandon living customary law, but its effect is recognized in relation to certain groups of the population. The practice of living customary law is criticized from the standpoint of ensuring the rule of law, since its application often violates the principle of equality. In the Republic of South Africa, the rule of law is ensured by living customary law through the natural potential of the ethnic community to self-regulation.

Keywords: official customary law, living customary law, law of indigenous people, Hindu law, Muslim law.

For citation: Kuznetsova S. S. Legal Custom in the Concept of the Rule of Law in India and the South African Republic (Comparative Legal Study). Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya=Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 35—47. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.040 (In Russ.)


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Juvenile Crime in the Republic of Kazakhstan: Criminological Characteristics and Legal Measures  Pdf 16

E. Yu. Antonova

E. Yu. Antonova
Khabarovsk State University of Economics and Law, Khabarovsk 680042, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article raises the problems of preventing juvenile crime, developing effective legal measures for minors with deviant behavior and including those who have violated the criminal law on the example of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The choice of this country for analysis is due to a decrease in the level of crimes committed by minors or with their complicity due to the background of the country's legal reform.
The aim of the study is to identify the positive experience of the Republic of Kazakhstan in implementing the state policy for the prevention of juvenile crime, to develop proposals aimed at improving educational measures for minors with deviant behavior, as well as the rehabilitation and social adaptation of minors released from prison. To achieve this goal, the article examines the criminological characteristics of juvenile crime in the Republic of Kazakhstan, analyzes the features of criminal responsibility and punishment of minors, who have violated criminal law and other measures of legal influence on these individuals.
The analysis of normative legal acts, measures for the prevention of juvenile delinquency and legal statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan allowed the author to conclude that criminal legal measures to influence minors who violated the criminal law are not always effective. This, in particular, is evidenced by the number of repeated criminal offenses committed by minors. The author comes to the conclusion about the effectiveness of measures aimed at improving the legal culture of young people, introducing juvenile justice into the legal system of the state, preventing the neglect and homelessness of minors, preventing criminal and other unlawful acts committed by minors, including those, who are under the age of criminal responsibility, and rehabilitation and social adaptation of young people who have served their sentences of imprisonment.

Keywords: juveniles, juvenile crime, criminal law measures, coercive educational measures, probation control, rehabilitation, social adaptation, non-custodial sentences.

For citation: Antonova E. Yu. Juvenile Crime in the Republic of Kazakhstan: Criminological Characteristics and Legal Measures. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 48—64. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.041 (In Russ.)


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The Role of the State in Foreign Economic Activity in Russia and Abroad: New or Old Paradigm?  Pdf 16

N. G. Doronina, N. G. Semilyutina

N. G. Doronina, N. G. Semilyutina
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the peculiarities in regulation of foreign trade and investment relations in legal systems of different states. The special regulation in this field is explained by multiple sources, which are applied in regulation of foreign economic relations: international treaty law, international private law and national acts of civil and administrative legislation.
The article consists of three parts. The first part is about international institutions, which influence the development of national legislation in foreign economic relations. The recent changes in international law — for example, agreements in the system of the World Trade Organization — show the growth of the authority of foreign trade policy and national legislation in regulation of foreign economic relations. The growing influence of national legislation involves the reaction of foreign trade policy in different states, which more frequently than ever use the power of state sovereignty institutions in order to protect national public interest. The significance of the legal institute of state monopoly in foreign economic relations is in the center of the analysis of the second part of the article, where it raises the problem of the growth of the institute of state monopoly on foreign economic relations and of a system of civil contracts regulating international financial markets. The presentation of the concession agreement as a model of international contract for trade in services market is the theme of the third part of the article.
Foreign legislation analysis demonstrates the increasing role of state regulation and control over the economic relations. Forms and methods of such regulation are diverse — from export licensing and economic sanctions to various forms of cooperation and use of various forms of public private partnership. Concession agreements represent a form of public—private partnership. Nowadays the capital movement regulations become more important in comparison with the regulation of movement of goods and services. The capital movement sometimes becomes the form of competition (sometimes unfair competition). To this effect the role of the state regulation in the sphere of international economic activities notably increases.

Keywords: World Trade Organization, foreign trade policy, foreign economic relations, state monopoly on foreign economic relations, concession agreements, investor — state dispute settlement.

For citation: Doronina N. G., Semilyutina N. G. The Role of the State in Foreign Economic Activity in Russia and Abroad: New or Old Paradigm?. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 65—80. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.042 (In Russ.)


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Doronina N. G., Semilyutina N. G. Contracts in Public Law: The Role of Contract Regulation of Property Relations. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 5, pp. 40—55. DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_4 (In Russ.)

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Wang Xigen, Tang Yong. The Right to Equal Development and its Practice Models in China. Frontiers of Law in China, 2015, vol. 10, no. 4.

Zor'kin V. Russia and Strassburg. Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2015, October 22.

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Theoretical and Practical Problems of Obligatory Professional Liability Insurance: A Comparative Analysis on the Basis of the Russian and Estonian Laws  Pdf 16

M. V. Kratenko, O.-J. Luik

M. V. Kratenkoa, O.-J. Luikb
aSiberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk 660041, Russian Federation
bLaw Firm LEXTAL, Tallinn, Estonia

Abstract. The number of fields, in which different countries are enforcing the obligatory liability insurance, is growing. It is an increasing trend. However, in private law, there is the principle of freedom of contract, which raises the question, is it being breached? What, if any, requirements can the state enforce on private relationships? The authors examine the principles of liability insurance and topical problems in the context of obligatory professional liability insurance. The research is based on two neighbouring countries: the Russian Federation and the Republic of Estonia (while the Estonian legal environment is in many ways influenced by the legislation and legal practice of the European Union). The proliferation of obligatory liability insurance is decreasing the number of tort claims (since many of the damages are compensated by the insurer if the insurance policy is in force). The authors consider that the liability insurance fulfils a dual purpose: ensures a compensation for the injured party and at the same time prevents the potential insolvency of the tortfeasor. So, the enforcement of obligatory professional obligatory liability insurance is justified in many professional practices: legal consulting, medical care services, appraisal activity.
Despite the differences in legislation on certain types of professional activity, similar legal issues have been discussed by lawyers and scholars: how to determine the occurrence of an insured event (trigger); should insurance be extended to cases of intentional errors and omissions; whether the victim has the right to choose the subject of compensation (between the insurer and tortfeasor)? The comparative legal method of research allows the authors to offer optimal solutions to the above problems.

Keywords: actio directa, obligatory insurance, professional liability insurance, professional errors and omissions, insured event, act committed trigger, occurrence trigger, deliberate damage.

For citation: Kratenko M. V., Luik O.-J. Theoretical and Practical Problems of Obligatory Professional Liability Insurance: A Comparative Analysis on the Basis of the Russian and Estonian Laws. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 81—94. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.043


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Basedow J., Birds J., Clarke M. Principles of European Insurance Contract Law (PEICL). 2nd ed. Köln, 2016. Pp. 309—310.

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The Concept of Time Charter in Private Maritime Law  Pdf 16

S. A. Sinitsyn

S. A. Sinitsyn
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

Abstract. Time-charter obligations are regulated by the legislation of most modern legal systems. However, this did not contribute to the clarity of the legal nature of the time charter and the determination of its place in the system of contractual obligations in modern law. Disagreements on this subject are observed not only in legal doctrine and judicial practice, but also reveal themselves in the analysis of time-charter legislation of various jurisdictions. The issues of conflict regulation of the time charter have been little studied. In the practice of merchant shipping, time charter continues to be actively used by business participants. Together, the above circumstances determine the relevance, theoretical and practical significance of time charter research from the point of view of Russian and foreign civil law and private international law. Despite the high practical significance of the questions raised and the undoubted theoretical interest in their resolution, it is impossible not to note the weakness of their study in Russian law.
In the context of the development of international trade, there is no doubt about the prospect of using comparative legal research methods to determine the advantages and disadvantages of legal regulation.
The author analyzes the legal regulation of time charter in the law of major maritime powers. The author's understanding of topical issues of the content of time charter obligations is investigated and proposed: the problems of applying standardized forms of time charter in international trade, the responsibility of the parties under time charter, the legal nature and content of time charter obligations, the limits of discretion of the parties in choosing the applicable law under time charter.

Keywords: correlation of time charter and charter, pro forma time charter, transport obligations in maritime private law, conflict regulation of the time charter, economic and legal principles in the regulation of the time charter.

For citation: Sinitsyn S. A. The Concept of Time Charter in Private Maritime Law. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 95—111. DOI: 10.12737/ jflcl.2020.044 (In Russ.)


Antoni A. Corso di diritto dei Transporti. Roma, 2008.

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Commentary on the Decision of the European Court of Human Rights in “Breyer v. Germany”  Pdf 16

D. I. Dedov, Kh. I. Hajiyev

D. I. Dedova, Kh. I. Hajiyevb
aEuropean Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg F-67075, France
bInstitute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

Abstract. The rapid development of digital technologies is accompanied by an increase in the implementation of mass observations which directly concerns the problem of data collection, processing and storage. Those who support an increasing mass observation argue that, while it entails interference with the privacy of individuals, it also serves as an effective means of ensuring the necessary level of security and preventing crime. However, it is clear that the state is obliged to maintain reasonable expectations of privacy, ensuring effective and full protection of fundamental human rights and freedoms and, in particular, the protection of personal data based on the requirements of Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights. In the case of Breyer v. Germany, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the legally required indiscriminate storage of subscriber information by telecommunication service providers does not violate Article 8 of the Convention. The Court found that the interference at hand was rather limited in nature, thereby invoking also the cases considered by both the Court itself and the EU Court that confirm its findings that there was no violation. Meanwhile, as follows from the separate opinion attached to the judgment, guarantees for the protection of personal data in the case at hand cannot be considered effective, since access to personal data can be obtained easily and automatically, and the law does not provide any restrictions against possible abuse. In addition, according to the same opinion, the legislator also failed to provide effective remedies, including judicial control over access to personal data. The Court was selective in justifying its conclusions, not paying attention to all the criteria developed by both the Court itself and the EU Court.

Keywords: digital technologies, protection of personal data, privacy, data storage, interference, balance of interests.

For citation: Dedov D.I., Hajiyev Kh. I. Commentary on the Decision of the European Court of Human Rights in “Breyer v. Germany”. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 112—123. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.045 (In Russ.)


Eliantonio M., Galli F., Schaper M. A Balanced Data Protection in the EU: Conflicts and Possible Solutions. Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, 2016, no. 23 (3).

Flaherty D. H. Protecting Privacy in Surveillance Societies. The Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, France, Canada and the United States. Chapel Hill, 1989.

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“Greening” of Economic Relations in Law (on the Example of the Energy Industry)  Pdf 16

I. V. Gudkov

I. V. Gudkov
International Institute of Energy Policy and Diplomacy, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow 119454, Russian Federation

Abstract. The growing importance of environmental protection factors, including climate, in economic activities makes it relevant to study the latest trends in regulating environmental relations in the energy industry. The impact of this sphere on the environment in general and on the climate in particular is one of the most.
The main motivations of the “energy transition” to “clean” energy sources are considered. The directions of “greening” the regulation of energy relations in international law are studied: the impact of universal climate agreements on the regulation of energy relations and the use of “sustainable development” and environmental protection in international treaties and law enforcement practice. The directions for “greening” regulating energy relations in domestic law, on the example of the development of energy and climate legislation of the European Union and practice of “climate justice” in the national courts.
The main conclusions are formulated: 1) international climate agreements allow for a wide range of energy-related climate protection measures and leave states free to decide which ones to choose; 2) current international environmental law is less stringent and effective than current international economic law. Although the concept of “sustainable development” is increasingly used in international economic treaties and law enforcement practice, the scale of its practical impact, including on the regulation of energy relations, should not be overestimated. The “environmental exceptions” to the general rules of international trade and investment law are of real significance. However, the “environmental exceptions” in key existing international multilateral trade and investment treaties have a relatively narrow scope, and the prospects for changing these treaties remain questionable. At the same time, the practice of application of international treaties and the “new generation”, providing a wider “environmental exceptions”, is in the process of formation and it remains to answer the question of whether exceptions are to be interpreted traditionally restrictive or their importance in the regulation of economic (including energy) relations will increase; 3) the practical effect of growing “climate affairs” against governments and companies at the current stage, it is difficult to fully predict, however, the obvious legal problems (incl. related to the establishment of relatability and causation) with the involvement of individuals to account for the adverse effects of climate change.

Keywords: energy transition, renewable energy sources, international climate agreements, General agreement on tariffs and trade, Energy Charter Treaty, sustainable development, environmental exceptions, carbon footprint, energy balances, climate justice.

For citation: Gudkov I. V. “Greening” of Economic Relations in Law (on the Example of the Energy Industry). Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 124—141. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.046 (In Russ.)


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Establishing and Addressing Gaps in Legislation by Implementing Decisions of the European Court of Human Rights  Pdf 16

Yu. E. Ibragimova

Yu. E. Ibragimova
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

Abstract. In the article, the author considers from a doctrinal perspective the concept and signs of gaps in the legislation, as one of the forms of positive law, taking into account the history of the formation of approaches to the gap of legal regulation in the science of countries of the continental legal tradition, as well as the procedure for their establishment and elimination in the light of decisions adopted by the European Court of Human Rights. The impact of the European Court of Human Rights practice on national legislation on issues requiring a legislative response is noted. Two mechanisms have been identified that facilitate the establishment and elimination of gaps in national legislation: 1) the implementation of the procedure for issuing a pilot decision, i.e. a resolution reflecting systemic gaps in law enforcement that require measures of a general, legislative nature; 2) an indication in the decision of the European Court of Human Rights that is not a pilot, that the applicable law in the applicant’s case does not meet the criterion of the quality of the law.
The author notes that the pilot rulings, as a new type of response of the European Court of Human Rights to violations of the Convention, are aimed at identifying systemic gaps in positive law. Pilot decisions not only focus the attention of national authorities on the defect, but also offer a number of specific measures to eliminate them. At the same time, it is also necessary for the legislator to take into account those cases in which the European Court of Human Rights does not require legislative or other legal response measures, but indicates legal uncertainty in the form of a lack of clarity and the consistency of the rule of law.
The author reinterprets the quality criterion of the law through the prism of establishing gaps in the legislation of the European Court of Human Rights. The article states that the phrase used in legislative texts, “prescribed by law” should not only indicate the existence of a norm, but also meet the requirements of clarity, unambiguity, predictability; meet social needs and be accompanied by adequate legislative guarantees.

Keywords: European Court of Human Rights, gaps, quality of law, judicial practice, judicial law-making.

For citation: Ibragimova Yu. E. Establishing and Addressing Gaps in Legislation by Implementing Decisions of the European Court of Human Rights. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 142—157. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.047 (In Russ.)


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Humane Treatment of Animals According to Foreign Legislation  Pdf 16

D. O. Sivakov

D. O. Sivakov
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

Abstract. Humane treatment of animals reflects moral development of a person, family, social group and society in general. Due to the evolution of the Russian legislation in the field of animal treatment, certain interests arise towards foreign regulation in the sphere under consideration. Research goals include the inspection of the legal regime for animal treatment in certain foreign states.
Research tasks include the comparison of: objects under protection in various states; definitions and schedules of animal cruelty in different jurisdictions; grounds for legit killing of animals due to foreign legislation; legal provisions over securing animal needs in various countries; functions of public authorities and organizations; public surveillance and supervision powers in the states under consideration.
As a matter of comparative methodology the law of the following countries has been researched by the author: UK, Australia, South Africa, EU, India, Thailand.
The use of fundamental definitions (humanism, responsibility) is highly relevant for the needs of research methodology. It surely facilitates the formation of doctrinal views over the relevant effective legislation. For instance, professional animal activists and advocates may even consider rodeos inhumane. The definition of animal cruelty (or cruel treatment) is a subject of the author’s special attention, which is focused over the following manifestations: using unfit animals (old-aged, diseased or wounded), poisoning, animal fights (including advertising).

Keywords: confined animals, animal welfare, animal training, animal experiments, animal cruelty, unnecessary (extreme) pain, suffering, animal fight, guilt presumption, punishment, worthless animal, animal location cite, animal aid center.

For citation: Sivakov D. O. Humane Treatment of Animals According to Foreign Legislation. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 5, pp. 158—170. DOI: 10.12737/ jflcl.2020.048 (In Russ.)


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