Contents # 2/2019

■ State and Law in Modern World: Problems of Theory and History



professor (em.) at the Aarhus University (the Kingdom of Denmark), doctor of law
Nordre Ringgade 1, 8000 Aarhus C

In this article different aspects of rooting, strengthening and trends of the Nordic Legal System (Nordic Law) are discussed. The Nordic Law is considered to be a sum of the legal systems of the countries, which are situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula. Apart of it the concept principles, particularities and advantages of this legal system are analyzed in comparison with the others. The author points the historical background and conditions of this legal system’s appearing and defines the periodization of this legal system strengthening process. He lights out five stages of the mentioned process. Besides this and according to the author’s viewpoint the Nordic Legal System should be characterized as the one of the traditional type and it differs substantially if it is compared to the Roman-Germanic or to the Anglo-Saxon (Anglo-American) legal systems, having the unique legal dimensions. Further in the article the law — making process, the order of parliamentary acts adopting, the laws using practice and handling the custom as a source of law in the Scandinavian countries are described and analyzed. Special attention is paid to the role of courts and judges in the law-making process, their influence on the formation of legal systems and legislation in the Nordic countries. In particular, the article notes the existence of a conflict between judges and parliamentarians. It lies in the fact that judges are not always satisfied with the quality of acts of Parliament, on the basis of which it is not always possible to fairly resolve the case in court. In addition, the author considers the functioning of public and private law institutions in the system of regulation of public relations. At the same time, the author pays the necessary attention to the regulation of social relations in those areas of public life that are not covered by acts of Parliament and in which contractual regulation in interpersonal relations and regulation of the activities of public organizations on the basis of self-regulation are possible. The problem of legal protection of individuals is considered.

Keywords: Nordic Legal System, law, legal act, law-making process, parliamentary acts, custom, practice, judge, tradition.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.1


Dahl, Melchior Rehof and Tamm. Danish Law in a European Perspective. GadJura, 1996.

Jaakko Husa, Kimmo Nuotio and Heikki Pihlajamäki. Nordic Law — Between Tradition and Dynamism. Intersentia, 2007.

Kimmo Nuotio, Sakari Melander, Merita Huomo-Kettunen (eds.). Introduction to Finnish Law and Finnish Legal Culture. Forum Juris, Helsinki, 2012.

Laura Carlson. The Fundamentals of Swedish Law, Studentlitteratur. 2nd ed. 2012.

Michael Bogdan (ed.). Swedish Legal System. Norsteds Juridik, 2010.

Per Hagelien and Marie Vonen. The Norwegian Legal System. Advokatfirmaet Schjødt AS, 1994.

The Nordic Legal Family and Unification of Laws. Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2017, no. 1, pp. 43—46. DOI: 10.12737/24287.

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M. L. ENTIN, head of the Department of European law of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, research professor at the Kant Baltic Federal University, professor, doctor of legal sciences
76, Vernadskiy ave., Moscow, Russia, 119454

E. G. ENTINA, associate professor at the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, senior research fellow of the Institute of Europe of the Russian Academy of Sciences, candidate of political sciences
17, Malaya Ordynka st., Moscow, Russia, 119017

E. A. TORKUNOVA, associate professor at the Department of European law of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences
76, Vernadskiy ave., Moscow, Russia, 119454

The article analyzes in detail the latest trends in the evolution of the legal system of the Russian Federation. The author reveals their specificity, distinctive features, correlation with changes in the external environment — the system of international relations, which cannot be ignored in the design and implementation of foreign policy and state-legal construction. It is shown that the correction of the legal system of the Russian Federation is long overdue: for the protection against geopolitical risks and power pressure from other leading world players — the US and the EU, as well as for the modernization of national law and law enforcement, taking into account the imperatives of the next round of the scientific and technological revolution and the needs of increasing international competitiveness. It is proved that the correction should not be chaotic, fragmentary, sporadic. It must be done pragmatic and balanced. It should ensure the legal security of the country and at the same time contribute to ensuring that Russia is effectively integrated into the growing fabric of TRANS-regional cooperation and can take the role of a normative leader in the arrangement of the EAU and the formation of the Comprehensive Large Eurasian Partnership.

Keywords: legal system of Russia, rapprochement and harmonization, reception of norms of law of the European Union, protection of internal law, legal security, the ratio of domestic, supranational and international law.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.2


Arutyunyan G. G. Pravovaya bezopasnost strany v prizme sistemnogo konstitutsionnogo monitoringa [The legal security of the country in the prism of the systemic constitutional monitoring]. Doklad na VII Sankt-Peterburgskom mezhdunarodnom yuridicheskom forume (Sankt-Peterburg, 17 maya 2017 goda). Available at:

Butorina Ye. I Konstitutsiya chto dyshlo. Kak rossiyskiy Konstitutsionnyy sud ishchet i nakhodit skrytyy smysl v Osnovnom zakone strany [The Constitution that breathed. How the Russian Constitutional Court seeks and finds hidden meaning in the Basic law of the country]. Delovoy ezhenedelnik “Profil”, 2017, November 21. Available at:

China Aims to Become World-Leading Cyber Power By 2035. Xinhua, 2017. December 25. Available at:

Danilevskiy N. Ya. Rossiya i Yevropa [Russia and Europe]. St. Petersburg, 1869. Available at:;

Entin M. L., Entina E. G. Rossiya i Yevropeyskiy Soyuz v 2011 — 2014 godakh. V poiskakh partnerskikh otnosheniy — V [Russia and the European Union in 2011—2014. Looking for partnerships — V]. Vol. I—II. Moscow, 2015.

Entin M. L., Entina E. G. V poiskakh partnerskikh otnosheniy — VI: Rossiya i Yevropeyskiy Soyuz v 2015—2016 godakh [Looking for partnership-VI: Russia and the European Union in 2015—2016]. Moscow, 2017.

Entin M. L., Entina E. G. Vklyuchenie normy prava ES i pravovykh pozitsiy Yevropeyskikh sudov vo vnutrennee pravo Rossiyskoy Federatsii: menyayushchayasya rol natsionalnogo pravosudiya [Incorporation of EU law and the legal positions of European courts into the domestic law of the Russian Federation: the changing role of national justice]. Sovremennye problemy mezhdunarodnogo i evraziyskogo pravosudiya. Iss. 10. Voronezh, 2017.

Entin M. L., Entina E. G. Vliyanie prava prav cheloveka na progressivnoe razvitie sovremennogo mezhdunarodnogo prava [Impact of human rights law on the progressive development of modern international law]. Parts I—II. Moskovskiy zhurnal mezhdunarodnogo prava, 2017, no. 2, pp. 29—44; no. 4, pp. 31—49.

Entin M., Entina E. Russia and China Protecting the Contemporary World Order. Rivista di studi politici internazionali, Ottobre—Dicembre 2016, anno 83, fasc. 332.

Entin M., Entina E. Vklyuchenie norm prava ES vo vnutrennee pravo RF: teoriya i praktika [Incorporation of EU law into Russian domestic law: theory and practice]. Vsya, 2017, no. 10. Available at:

Entin M., Entina E. Mezhdunarodnoe pravo v epokhu peremen [International law in an era of change]. Sovremennoe mezhdunarodnoe pravo: globalizatsiya i integratsiya. LIBER AMICORUM v chest professora P. N. Biryukova. Voronezh, 2016. Pp. 216—236.

Gevorgyan K. ”Odnostoronnie sanktsii” i mezhdunarodnoe pravo [“Unilateral sanctions” and international law]. Mezhdunarodnaya zhizn. Available at:

Guido Raimondi, President of the European Court of Human Rights, opening of the Judicial Year Speech, 29 January 2016. European Court of Human Rights, 2016, Annual report, Strasbourg, 2017, p. 21. Available at:

Karaganov S. Budushchiy miroporyadok. Navyazyvat politicheskie sistemy, kulturnye i chelovecheskie tsennosti Zapadu stanovitsya vse trudnee [Future world order. It is becoming increasingly difficult to impose political systems, cultural and human values on the West]. Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2017, September 7. Available at:

Kashkin S. Pravo Yevropeyskogo Soyuza. Razdel XXIII. Pravovye osnovy vzaimootnosheniy mezhdu Rossiey i Yevropeyskim Soyuzom [European Union. Section XXIII. The legal basis of relations between Russia and the European Union]. Available at:

Keshner M. V. Ekonomicheskie sanktsii v sovremennom mezhdunarodnom prave [Economic sanctions in modern international law]. Moscow, 2015.

Kiberbezopasnost na novom vitke: gotovimsya protivostoyat kiberugrozam. XX mezhdunarodnoe issledovanie EY v oblasti informatsionnoy bezopasnosti za 2017—2018 gody [Cybersecurity in a new round: preparing to confront cyber threats. 20th international EY study in the field of information security for 2017—2018]. Available at:$File/EY-giss-2017-rus.pdf.

Komrakov A. Minfin pridumal pesochnitsu dlya kriptovalyut [The Finance Ministry came up with a sandbox for cryptocurrency]. Nezavisimaya gazeta, 2018, January 18.

Lukashuk I. I. Sovremennoe pravo mezhdunarodnykh dogovorov [Modern law of treaties]. Vol. II. Deystvie mezhdunarodnykh dogovorov. Moscow, 2004.

Overview of China’s Cybersecurity Law, IT Advisory KPMG China, February 2017. Available at:

Popova Yu. Zakonnaya naslednitsa: kak Rossiya zanyala mesto SSSR v Sovbeze OON [The rightful heir: as Russia took the place of the USSR in the UN security Council]. RT na russkom, 2016, December 24. Available at:

Romanova T. Pravovye aspekty otnosheniy Rossii i ES v otechestvennykh issledovaniyakh [Legal aspects of relations between Russia and the EU in domestic research]. Available at:

Smirnov S. ”Rosneft” obyavila nezakonnym reshenie Suda ES o sanktsiyakh. Vedomosti, 2017, March 28 [“Rosneft” declared illegal the decision of the EU Court of sanctions]. Available at:

Trubetskoy N. S. Yevropa i chelovechestvo [Europe and humanity]. Sofiya, 1920. Available at:

Vinokurov E., Balas P., Emerson M. et al. IIASA project “Challenges and Opportunities of Economic Integration within a Wider European and Eurasian Space”, December 2016. Available at:

Wagner J. China’s Cybersecurity Law: What You Need to Know. The Diplomat, 2017, June 1. Available at:

Yevropeyskiy Soyuz. Osnovopolagayushchie akty v redaktsii Lissabonskogo dogovora s kommentariyami [European Union. Fundamental acts as amended by the Lisbon Treaty with comments]. Ed. by S. Yu. Kashkin. Available at:

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■ Constitutional Law, Constitutional Litigation, Municipal Law in Comparative Legal Perspective



deputy of the Moscow City Duma, president of the Moscow Chamber of Commerce and Industry, candidate of legal sciences
15/29, Strastnoy blvd., Moscow, Russia, 127994

The explanation of the reasons of variety of forms of a political organization in the modern world lies in the sphere of not only legal science, it has cultural and historical basis.
The aim of the present article was to prove on the basis of culturological approach to the law that the federalism and a federal state system are products of the western political and legal cultures, therefore, these concepts are the cornerstone of feature of the social organization of the western societies and the principles of their organization.
The basic principles of the organization of the western societies allow to look at social roots of the federal organization of the state through a prism of such concepts, as federal structure of society, party systems, a role of so-called groups of pressure and political movements in the organization of the state power and implementation of the political relations in the studied sphere. Their research leads to the concept of federal society.
The character and the content of the basic principles of the organization of the western societies allows to draw a conclusion that federal society is a product of the western political and legal culture. Therefore, within the western political and legal culture federal character of society is capable to provide its integration, prevention and resolution of the social conflicts. Possibility of implementation of the concept of federal society in other cultural and historical conditions in this regard depends on degree of compatibility of the basic principles of the social and political organization which are the cornerstone of the corresponding political and legal cultures with the specified principles developed within the western political and legal culture.

Keywords: form of a state organization, federalism, federal society, political system, culturological approach, western legal culture, structural distinctions, territorial organization.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.3


Elazar D. J. Federal Models of (Civil) Authority. Available at: (accessed 20.02.2016).

Gaganova N. A. Kontseptsiya razdeleniya vlastey i ideya subsidiarnosti. Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2003, no. 3.

Muromtsev G. I. Kultura i pravo: aspekty sootnosheniya. Pravo i kultura. Moscow, 2002.

Riker W. H. Federalism: Origin, Operation, Significance. Boston, 1964.

Stein M. B. Federal Political Systems and Federal Societies. Canadian Federalism: Myth or Reality? Ed. by J. P. Meekison. 2nd ed. Toronto, 1971.

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E. M. YAKIMOVA, associate professor at the Baikal State University, candidate of legal sciences, associate professor
11, Lenin st., Irkutsk, Russia, 664003

E. A. EFIMOVA, specialist-expert of the Department Federal Antimonopoly Service of the Russian Federation
17, Rossiyskaya st., Irkutsk, Russia, 664025

Today legal protection is the most legitimate way to find workable solutions to social conflicts. Judicial protection promotes the solution of a number of tasks of the modern Russian society’s stabilization, optimization law-making and law-enforcement processes, perhaps, thanks to lawful and reasonable use of mechanisms of judicial protection. The appeal to judicial authorities is in general opinion one of the most effective in application from all mechanism of the state protection. The research of experience of the countries that close to the Russian Federation on legal system, allows to reveal the vectors of development of composition of legal space of Russia mentioning judicial system. Both Russia, and Germany use the Romano-Germanic legal system that assumes the most interesting and effective comparison in connection with identical the main essence of the right of two countries. In the submitted article authors have designated some directions of improvement of the mechanism of judicial protection of the rights and freedoms of the person and citizen in Russia. For the greatest disclosure of a subject and illumination of a question by authors a method of comparative jurisprudence used.
The conclusion has been drawn that the judicial system which has developed in modern Russia allows to exercise the right for judicial protection. Further improvement of this system is caused by implementation of the international standards in legal space of Russia and also maintenance of sufficient level of variability of judicial system.

Keywords: judicial system, judicial protection, rights, Germany, legal proceedings, competitiveness.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.4



Bykov S. S., Frosher G. Antiuklonitelnye predpisaniya v nalogovom prave Rossii i Germanii: sravnenie opyta razresheniya kolliziy [Antiavoidance rules in Russian and German tax law: the comparison of collision resolution practices]. Journal of Tax Reform, 2016, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 59—84.

Chuksina V. V. Problema tipologii natsionalnykh institutov po sodeystviyu i zashchite prav cheloveka [Typology Problem of National Institutions for Promotion and Protection of Human]. Izvestiya Irkutskoy gosudarstvennoy ekonomicheskoy akademii, 2012, no. 6, pp. 116—121.

Danielyan D. R. Konstitutsionnyy Sud RF v sudebnoy sisteme Rossii: znachenie i perspektivy razvitiya [The Constitutional Court of the RF in the judicial system of Russia: significance and development perspectives]. Rossiyskiy sudya, 2014, no. 8, pp. 31—34.

Kovler A. I. Kriterii spravedlivogo sudebnogo razbiratelstva: mezhdunarodnye standarty i ikh implementatsiya v natsionalnom pravosudii [Criterion of a Fair Trail: International Standards and its Implementation by National Justice]. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2017, no. 1, pp. 21—25.

Lazarev V. V. Mesto i rol suda v pravovoy sisteme [The Place and Role of Court in Legal System]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2014, no. 10, pp. 17—31.

Lezhe R. Velikie pravovye sistemy sovremennosti: sravnitelno-pravovoy podkhod [Great Legal Systems of the Present: Comparative and Legal Approach]. Moscow, 2009. 584 p.

Linovskiy V. A. Opyt istoricheskikh rozyskaniy o sledstvennom ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve v Rossii [The Experience of Historical Research on Investigative Criminal Proceedings in Russia]. Moscow, 2001. 240 p.

Neshataeva T. N. Uroki sudebnoy praktiki o pravakh cheloveka: evropeyskiy i rossiyskiy opyt [Lessons of Judicial Practice about Human Rights: European and Russian Experience]. Moscow, 2007. 320 p.

Pechegin D. A. Sledstvennoe nachalo ugolovnogo sudoproizvodstva [Investigating Core of the Criminal Proceedings]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2017, no. 5, pp. 110—119.

Presnyakov M. V. Standarty spravedlivogo pravosudiya: problemy formy i soderzhaniya [Standards of Fair Justice: Problems of Form and Content]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2016, no. 2, pp. 144—150.

Prizhennikova A. N. The Judicial System of the Russian Federation: the Current State. European Journal of Law and Political Sciences, 2015, no. 3, pp. 59—65.

Smirnov A. P. Sootnoshenie ponyatiy “okhrana prav” i “zashchita prav” [Protection and Security of Rights — Correlation of Concepts]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2010, no. 331, pp. 123—125.

Smirnova I. G. K voprosu o predelakh ogranicheniya prav lichnosti v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve [On Limiting Individual Rights in Criminal Proceedings]. Advokatskaya praktika, 2015, no. 5, pp. 28—32.

Smolkova I. V. Problemy sudebnoy zashchity prav i svobod obvinyaemogo v rossiyskom ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve [Problems of Judicial Protection of the Rights of the Accused in the Russian Criminal Proceedings]. Zakony Rossii: opyt, analiz, praktika, 2017, no. 11, pp. 21—25.

Sweigert W. T. The Legal System of the Federal Republic of Germany. Hastings Law Journal, 1959, vol. 11, pp. 7—22.

Yakimova E. M. Gosudarstvennyy mekhanizm zashchity subektov predprinimatelskoy deyatelnosti v sovremennoy Rossii [State Mechanism of Protection of Subjects of Entrepreneurial Activity in Modern Russia]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Pravo, 2018, no. 28, pp. 83—97.

Yakimova E. M. Primenenie protsedur uproshchennogo sudoproizvodstva po delam, voznikshim iz predprinimatelskoy deyatelnosti, v Federativnoy Respublike Germaniya [Application of Summary Proceedings to Cases Arising out of Entrepreneurial Activities in the Federal Republic of Germany]. Arbitrazhnyy i grazhdanskiy protsess, 2018, no. 4, pp. 41—46.

Yepifantseva Ye. I. Sistema upravleniya prirodookhrannoy deyatelnostyu kak faktor ustoychivogo razvitiya promyshlennogo predpriyatiya [A Management System for Environmental Activity as a Factor of Sustainable Development of Industrial Enterprise]. Baikal Research Journal, 2015, vol. 6, no. 3, p. 16.

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lecturer at the Department of humanities of the Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University (Sheki branch)
305, M. Rasulzadeh st., Sheki, Azerbaijan, AZ5500

The author’s focus is on studying the problem of constitutional and legal regulation of the State Emblem of the Republic of Azerbaijan and suggesting proposals for their extrapolation. A short excursion is conducted and historical facts are described that led to the appearance of regulatory legal acts on state symbols in the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, their subsequent amendments and additions or the adoption of new ones. Official documents that establish the State Emblem of the Republic of Azerbaijan, its description and the procedure for official use are analyzed and explicated from the point of view of the requirements imposed by legal science and practice to the process of creating laws and other regulatory legal acts. Particular attention is paid to the phenomenological analysis of the texts of these documents, their correlation with other normative legal acts, as well as their legal and technical design. In regulators, objective and subjective gaps are revealed — shortages of norms, regulating situations that fall within the scope of legal influence, the need for which is partly due to the dynamics of social relations, and also collusions — disagreements or contradictions between separate legal norms. These problems make the application of legislation on the state emblem of the Republic of Azerbaijan, as well as the official and unofficial use of the state emblem itself (placement, reproduction) extremely difficult.
Based on the analysis a well-founded author’s position improving the normative regulation of the State Emblem of the Azerbaijan Republic and ways of eliminating corresponding gaps and collisions is proposed by ensuring internal consistency, logical harmony, their compliance with the requirements of standard-setting techniques. Raising the level of legal technique of regulatory legal acts will guarantee the adequacy of its textual form, increase the efficiency of their application, contribute to raising the level of legal culture of the society.

Keywords: Azerbaijan, the State Emblem, legal regulation, normative legal act, gap, collision.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.5



Cherdantsev A. F. Teoriya gosudarstva i prava [Theory of State and Law]. Moscow, 2000. 427 p.

Gosudarstvennyy flag Azerbaydzhanskoy Respubliki [State flag of the Azerbaijan Republic]. İRS, 2010, no. 2, pp. 20—26.

Teoriya gosudarstva i prava [Theory of State and Law]. Ed. by A. V. Malko, A. Yu. Salomatin. St. Petersburg, 2016. 423 p.

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■ Administrative Law, Financial Law, Information Law



associate professor at the Department of legal disciplines of the University “Astana”, candidate of legal sciences
13, Abay ave., Astana, Kazakhstan, 010000

The work is devoted to the study of the universal method of protection of rights, carried out when the court recognize acts of state bodies or local representative or executive body that do not comply with the legislation invalid. Theoretical and practical problems connected with the use of this method in the protection of private or public rights are disclosed.
The author notes that the opinions of previous and modern researchers regarding the expediency, universality, and effectiveness of the considered methods of protection of rights are divided. Some researchers assume that considered method of protection of rights is harmful in those cases when it excludes the possibility of using other methods of protection of rights, the second ones recognize contradiction to the mechanism of “separation of power”, some find it useful in the system of protection of rights, and some compare it with the institute of judicial control.
Judicial decisions from the bank of judicial acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan in cases of challenging the legality of normative legal acts, the results of summarizing judicial practice of the courts in this category of cases for 2015, as well as statistical data on the consideration of such cases by local courts for 2016—2017 show that that this method is almost never used. At the same time, it was noted that the lack of statistics on cases of challenging the legality of legal acts, on the one hand, creates difficulty in identifying the effectiveness of rules protecting the rights of the court, and on the other, confirms the lack of access to information about the activities of courts in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The author draws attention to several circumstances that impede the implementation of the protection of rights in court by these means. Firstly, the absence of a separate form of legal proceedings applicable to cases arising from public relations. Secondly, the lack of special procedures for challenging the legality or validity of legal acts in the form of judicial nullification. Thirdly, the lack of a formed system of administrative justice. Fourthly, the lack of administrative-procedural forms of protection in court. Fifth, the absence of specialized administrative courts, whose competence includes the consideration and resolution of disputes from the category of public law. Sixth, the absence in the activities of courts of governing normative decisions explaining the procedural order challenging the legality or validity of legal acts.

Keywords: judicial control, judicial norm control, challenging the legality of acts, administrative justice, institute of invalidity of acts, judicial nullification, ways to protect rights.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.6



Ablaeva E. B. Formirovanie sistemy administrativnoy yustitsii v Respublike Kazakhstan: problemy i perspektivy [Formation of the administrative justice system in the Republic of Kazakhstan: problems and prospects]. Problemy ekonomiki i yuridicheskoy praktiki, 2017, no. 5.

Chernus N. Yu., Zhukov A. A. Sudebnoe osparivanie normativnykh pravovykh aktov v Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Judicial Contestation of Regulatory Legal Acts in the Russian Federation]. Vestnik NGU. Seriya: Pravo, 2010, vol. 6, iss. 2.

Dvigun A. M. Priznanie nedeystvitelnym akta gosudarstvennogo organa ili organa mestnogo samoupravleniya kak sposob zashchity grazhdanskikh prav [Invalidation of an act of a state body or local self-government as a way to protect civil rights]. Cand. diss. thesis. Irkutsk, 2008.

Effektivnost pravovykh norm [The effectiveness of legal norms]. Moscow, 1980.

Kommentariy k Grazhdanskomu protsessualnomu kodeksu Respubliki Kazakhstan [Commentary on the Civil Procedure Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan]. Ed. by K. A. Mami. Astana, 2016.

Nikitin S. V. Sudebnyy kontrol za normativnymi pravovymi aktami v grazhdanskom i arbitrazhnom protsesse [Judicial Control over Regulatory Legal Acts in the Civil and Arbitration Proceedings]. Moscow, 2010.

Shakaryan M. S. Izbrannye trudy [Selected Works]. St. Petersburg, 2014.

Shukhareva A. V. Utrata sily yuridicheskogo akta: teoriya, praktika, tekhnika [The loss of the force of a legal act: theory, practice, technology]. Cand. diss. thesis. Nizhny Novgorod, 2013.

Soldatova V. I. Administrativnye akty kak osnovaniya vozniknoveniya, izmeneniya i prekrashcheniya grazhdanskikh pravootnosheniy [Administrative acts as the basis for the creation, change and termination of civil legal relations]. Pravo i ekonomika, 2016, no. 9.

Sultanov A. R. Osparivanie nedeystvuyushchego zakona [Contestation of an inactive law]. Available at:

Tumanov D. A. O nekotorykh vozmozhnostyakh suda v zashchite neposredstvennykh obshchestvennykh interesov [On some possibilities of the court in the protection of direct public interests]. Aktualnye problemy grazhdanskogo protsessualnogo prava: sbornik materialov mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. Moscow, 2017.

Vaseneva M. A. O priznanii nedeystvitelnym akta gosudarstvennogo organa ili organa mestnogo samoupravleniya [On invalidation of an act of a state body or local self-government body]. Biznes v zakone, 2009, no. 5.

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senior research fellow of the Department of financial, tax and budget legislation of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences, associate professor
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218

The article examines the problems arising in the implementation of double taxation treaties, through the prism of the use of law enforcement agencies — tax authorities and courts — the concept of the actual right to income, developed by the international community and implemented in the Russian taxes and fees legislation in 2014. It is noted that the basis of such a tax dispute is a conflict of interest between the state and the taxpayer (tax agent), as the state represented by the tax authorities seeks to maximize funds in the Russian budget system, also on the expense of tax revenues, while the taxpayer (tax agent) pursues a private interest minimizing taxes and increasing profit. The article reveals the peculiarity of the Russian law enforcement practice, which consists in the fact that the tax and judicial authorities do not establish the ultimate beneficiary, if they have reason to believe that a foreign organization — the recipient of income from a source based in the Russian Federation — is not a practical owner of income. As the key problem arises in the applying by tax and judicial authorities the concept of the actual right to income in the consideration of the dispute related to use double taxation treaties advantages for determining the rates and corporate income tax amount, the issue of establishing the criteria — as a basis for law enforcement officers to conclude whether or not a person is the practical owner of income — is highlighted.
According to the results of the study, the conclusion is made about the importance of the actual right to income concept to solve the conflict of interests between the state represented by tax authorities and income tax payers that use the advantages of the double taxation treaties where the Russian Federation is a party.

Keywords: income tax, double taxation treaties, judicial practice, the concept of the actual right to income, beneficiary.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.7



Akopyan O. A., Balkhaeva S. B., Golovina A. A. et al. Yuridicheskiy konflikt [Legal Conflict]. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov. Moscow, 2017. 312 p.

Arakelov S. A. Razvitie kontseptsii fakticheskogo prava na dokhod: podkhody FNS Rossii s uchetom sformirovavsheysya sudebnoy praktiki [Developing the concept of beneficial ownership for income: approaches of federal tax service considering relevant court decisions]. Zakon, 2017, no. 5, pp. 45—56.

Khavanova I. A. Kontseptsiya benefitsiarnogo vladeltsa (sobstvennika) v nalogovom prave [Concept of beneficiary owner (proprietor) in tax law]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2014, no. 12, pp. 50—60.

Khavanova I. A. Mezhdunarodnye dogovory Rossiyskoy Federatsii ob izbezhanii dvoynogo nalogooblozheniya [Russia’s double taxation prevention treaties]. Ed. by I. I. Kucherov. Moscow, 2016. 352 p.

Motsnaya O. V. Konflikt interesov kak predposylka vozniknoveniya trudovogo spora [Conflict of interest as a prerequisite for a labor dispute]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2017, no. 11, pp. 87—95.

Muratova O. V. Preddogovornye otnosheniya v mezhdunarodnom kommercheskom oborote: spetsifika i tendentsii pravovogo regulirovaniya [Pre-contractual relations in international commercial tornover: specificity and tendencies of legal regulation]. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2017, no. 3, pp. 71—78.

Nalogovoe pravo. Obshchaya chast [Tax law. The general part]. Ed by I. I. Kucherov. Moscow, 2014. 760 p.

Sevalnev V. V., Cherepanova E. V. Konflikt interesov kak pravovoy fenomen v publichnoy sfere [Conflict of interest as a legal phenomenon in the public sphere]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2017, no. 10, pp. 143—151.

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■ International and Integration Law. European Law



D. I. DEDOV, judge of the European Court of Human Rights, doctor of legal sciences

Kh. I. HAJIYEV, head of the Department of judicial practice and law enforcement of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences

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specialist of the Department of foreign constitutional, administrative, criminal legislation and international law of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218

In the article the author analyzes either international multilateral and bilateral agreements with the participation of China and the Arctic States, or other legal acts relating to the People’s Republic of China activities in the Arctic region, which forms the international legal basis of China’s cooperation in the Arctic.
General scientific and private scientific methods of cognition composes methodological basis for the study.
As a result, in the course of legal analysis it was revealed that China’s international legal cooperation with the Arctic States is primarily focused on environmental issues, scientific research and shipping in the Arctic Ocean. At the same time, China respects sovereignty, sovereign rights and jurisdiction of the Arctic States in the Arctic zone, and also highly appreciates the Arctic Council’s role in solving problems related to the Arctic Region. It is especially important, that in its basic political and legal document on the status of the Arctic, published in January 2018 — the White Paper of the “Arctic Policy of China”, it is specifically emphasized that the People’s Republic of China does not conduct an aggressive Arctic policy and does not violate applicable international law, neither customary law nor treaty law. In the “One Belt, One Road” initiative of the Government of the People’s Republic of China, namely in its “maritime” component — the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road”, the Arctic Ocean has a key role. China in cooperation with Russia announced an intention to create “Polar Silk Road”. In a view of China the Northern Sea Route would be a part of it.
Moreover, now the experience of concluding agreements between China and Arctic states on the exploitation of mineral resources is expanding. Thus, the article deals with the “historic” Agreement concluded between the USA and China on the development of liquefied natural gas co-production in Alaska 2017. The rapid international promotion of China’s national interests in the Arctic makes it possible to predict that the Arctic component of China’s legal policy will only increase in the future.

Keywords: the Arctic States, the Arctic, the Arctic Council, the People’s Republic of China, the Arctic policy, international legal cooperation.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.8



Abramova A. I., Avkhadeev V. R., Andrichenko L. V. et al. Arkticheskoe pravo: kontseptsiya razvitiya [Arctic Law: Conception of the development]. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva. Moscow, 2014. 152 p.

Berkman P. A., Vylegzhanin A. N. Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean. Springer, 2013. 459 p.

China’s Arctic Policy, The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China, January 2018. Available at: (accessed 01.08.2018).

Chuanjiao Xie. Sino-Russian Expedition Provides Arctic Data. China daily, 2018, October 31.

Gudoshnikov L. M., Troshchinskiy P. V. Sovremennoe pravo Kitayskoy Narodnoy Respubliki (obzor zakonodatelstva 1978—2010 godov) [Contemporary Law of the People’s Republic of China (legislative review 1978—2010)]. Part 1. Moscow, 2012. 200 p.

Kashirkina A. A. Yevraziyskiy ekonomicheskiy soyuz: rasshirenie granits i pravovaya realnost [Eurasian Economic Union: expanding the boundaries and legal reality]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2016, no. 11, pp. 160—171.

Khabrieva T. Y. Rossiyskaya Arktika — territoriya prava [Russian Arctic — Territory of Law]. In Khabrieva T. Y., Kobylkin D. N., Yemelyantsev V. P. et al. Rossiyskaya Arktika-territoriya prava: almanakh. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva. Moscow; Salekhard, 2014. 280 p.

Kienko E. V. Mezhdunarodno-pravovaya kharakteristika arkticheskoy politiki Kitaya [International Legal Framework of the Arctic Policy of the People’s Republic of China]. Moskovskiy zhurnal mezhdunarodnogo prava, 2017, no. 3, pp. 18—30.

Vylegzhanin A. N. Pravovoe polozhenie Arkticheskogo regiona v dokumentakh [Legal regime of the Arctic region in documents]. Arkticheskiy region. Khrestomatiya. Vol. 3. Primenimye pravovye istochniki. Ed. by I. S. Ivanov. Moscow, 2013. 662 p.

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■ Civil Law, Entrepreneurial Law, Family Law, Private International Law



associate professor at the Department of civil law of the Siberian Federal University, candidate of legal sciences
79, Svobodnyy ave., Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 660041

The article examines issues related to the insurer making an "in-kind" insurance payment by replacing or repairing the insured property. Russian legislation regulates this form of insurance settlement only in relation to the compulsory civil liability insurance for vehicle owners. At the same time, the procedure and conditions for damages in kind in voluntary types of property insurance (residential insurance, motor hull insurance, etc.) are determined solely by the standard rules of insurers and the insurance contract. Insufficient regulatory framework and unequal negotiation opportunities lead to abuse by insurers, limiting the rights of the insured to timely and full compensation for losses. Issues related to the responsibility of the insurer for violation of a reasonable period of repair work and deficiencies in the quality of repair remain unresolved.
The author analyzes the practice of considering relevant insurance disputes by the courts of Russia and the United States, as well as the recommendations of the UK Financial Ombudsman Service on issues related to the implementation of insurance settlement in kind. Based on a comparative study, it was concluded that the current model of an insurance contract allows for various options (methods) for the fulfillment of an obligation by an insurer, including by organizing and paying for insured property’s repairs. However, even in this case, the insurer remains the subject of obligations to the insured, and there is no need to use the construction of liability for the actions of third parties (article 403 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation). In order to curb possible abuse by insurers in terms of determining the conditions and procedure for damages in kind, it is proposed to establish minimum (standard) requirements for contracts for voluntary property insurance.

Keywords: insurance contract, settlement in kind, consumer, motor hull, Compulsory civil liability insurance for vehicle owners, voluntary medical insurance, renewal repair, medical services.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.9



An Insurer’s Obligation to Match: Comparable Materials and Quality. Ed. by J. Bukowski. 30 August 2017. Available at: (accessed 20.12.2018).

Gatsalov K. A. Pravovye aspekty “vyplaty remontom” po KASKO [Legal aspects of “payment by repair” under hull insurance contract]. Yuridicheskaya i pravovaya rabota v strakhovanii, 2010, no. 3, pp. 89—95.

Grazhdanskoe pravo [Civil law]. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. Ed. by Ye. A. Sukhanov. Moscow, 2011. 1208 p.

Justified refusal to honor the insurer’s decision to repair. Ed. by J. H. Bowman, Stockham Law Group P. A. Available at: (accessed 20.12.2018).

Nenashev M. M. Vyplaty po KASKO v vide remonta: pravovye voprosy teorii i praktiki [Payment by repair under hull insurance contract: legal issues of theory and practice]. Yurist, 2012, no. 4, pp. 15—21.

Reyzer I. Naturalnoe vozmeshchenie OSAGO. Problemy i riski novogo Zakona [Payment in kind under compulsory motor third party liability insurance. Problems and risks of new Law]. EZh-Yurist, 2017, no. 15, pp. 1, 3.

Sokol P. V. Formy otvetstvennosti strakhovshchika za narushenie strakhovogo obyazatelstva [Forms of insurer’s liability for breach of contractual obligation]. Pravo i ekonomika, 2005, no. 1, pp. 25—28.

The Insurer’s Option to Repair Turns an Insurance Contract into a Repair or Construction Contract. Ed. by Ch. Merlin. 1 October 2010. Available at: (accessed 10.11.2018).

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assistant professor at the Department of business law, civil and arbitration procedure of Novosibirsk National Research State University
1, Pirogov st., Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090

The article is about the place and peculiarities of a smart contract in Russian contract law. The author analyses recent foreign experience of regulation and research of smart contracts.
The purpose of research is to define a smart contract in conventional contract law terms and reveal its main legal characteristics. While pursuing this purpose the author takes into consideration conclusion, performance, modification, termination of a smart contract, and application of defence measures and responsibilities to obligations in a smart contract.
For conducting research the author uses comparative method and special legal methods such as methods of comparative legal research, case law analysis, and statutory interpretation. Issues of performing obligations without human intervention and conclusion of contracts by electronic agents that were considered in the foreign doctrine are specifically analysed.
The author concludes that smart contracts’ occurrence changed the way in which obligations are performed. We face a new type of performance of obligations, namely automated performance of obligations that has not been known before in Russian law and legal practice. Moreover, a smart contract could be an entire contract or separate contract’s terms on automated performance of parties’ conditions. Having undertaken the analysis of smart contract’s definitions and its legal nature, the author argues that a smart contract should be defined as a contract in the form of software code or separate contract’s terms both of which should include provisions on automated performance of obligations. It seems that such measures as mutual restitution to obligations from a smart contract, specific performance, and tort liability can be applied.

Keywords: smart contract, contract law, contract, classification of contracts, performance of obligations, automated performance of obligations.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.10



Alabi F. Taking Contracting Digital: Examination of the Smart Contracts Experiment. New York University. Elsevier. 2017. 9 August.

Aleksanyan Ye. A. Aktualnye voprosy zaklyucheniya dogovora v elektronnoy forme [Contemporary Issues of Concluding a Contract in Electronic Form]. Nauchnye issledovaniya i razrabotki molodykh uchenykh: sbornik materialov XVIII Mezhdunarodnoy molodezhnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (Novosibirsk, 10, 23 maya 2017 goda). Novosibirsk, 2017. Pp. 175—179.

Ashurova E. A., Bakhtina Yu. S. Osobennosti zaklyucheniya grazhdansko-pravovykh dogovorov v elektronnoy forme [Issues of Consluding Civil Law Contracts in Electronic Form]. Alleya nauki, 2018, no. 6. Available at: (accessed 20.09.2018).

Chayka A. A. Printsip nadlezhashchego ispolneniya obyazatelstv [Principle of Due Performance of Obligations]. Cand. diss. thesis. Volgograd, 2007. 22 p.

Didenko A. A. Osobennosti grazhdansko-pravovogo dogovora, zaklyuchennogo v elektronno-tsifrovoy forme [Aspects of a Civil Contract Concluded in Electronic-Digital Form]. Fundamentalnye i prikladnye issledovaniya: problemy i rezultaty, 2013, no. 7, pp. 198—201.

Fatkullin A. R. Problemy prakticheskogo primeneniya printsipa estoppel v rossiyskoy pravoprimenitelnoy praktike [Problems of practical application of the principle of estoppel in Russian law enforcement]. Nauka bez granits, 2018, no. 2, pp. 124—127.

Gulyaev A. I., Novikova S. V. O nekotorykh perspektivakh razvitiya umnogo kontrakta kak osobogo instrumenta v oblasti zaklyucheniya i ispolneniya grazhdansko-pravovykh dogovorov [On Some Prospects for the Development of a Smart Contract as a Special Instrument in the Field of Concluding and Executing Civil Contracts]. Epomen, 2018, no. 13, pp. 18—29.

Gushchina D. Pravovye osobennosti zaklyucheniya dogovora v elektronnoy forme [Legal Aspects of Concluding the Contract in Electronic Form]. Student goda 2017: sbornik statey II Mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo konkursa (Penza, 25 noyabrya 2017 goda). Penza, 2017. Pp. 162—167.

Idrisov I. D. Pravovye voprosy ispolzovaniya avtomatizirovannykh sistem soobshcheniy v elektronnoy torgovle [Legal Issues of Using Automated Message Systems in E-Commerce]. Vestnik Chelyabinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Pravo, 2009, no. 36, pp. 53—56.

Jaccard G. Smart Contracts and the Role of Law. Jusletter IT, 2017, November 23.

Kaleykina Ye. O. Primenenie pravila estoppel v rossiyskom grazhdanskom prave [The Application of the Rule of Estoppel in the Russian Civil Law]. Molodezh tretego tysyacheletiya. Omsk, 2016. Pp. 76—78.

Kardonov A. V. Sfery primeneniya smart-kontraktov i riski pri rabote s nimi [Scopes of Application of Smart Contracts and Risks at Work with them]. Biznes-obrazovanie v ekonomike znaniy, 2018, no. 1, pp. 44—47.

Kerikmäe T., Rull A. The Future of Law and eTechnologies. Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2016.

Komashko M. N. Restitutsiya kak sposob zashchity prava [Restitution as a Remedy]. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2010. 32 p.

Krivonos D. A. Osobennosti zaklyucheniya elektronnykh dogovorov posredstvom seti Internet [Features of Electronic Contracts Concluding over the Internet]. Sinergiya nauk, 2018, no. 25. Available at: (accessed 20.09.2018).

Kulik T. Yu. Osobennosti pravovogo regulirovaniya dogovorov, zaklyuchaemykh v elektronnoy forme [Aspects of Legal Regulation of Contracts Concluded in Electronic Form]. Cand. diss. thesis. Krasnodar, 2007. 34 p.

Lisitskaya A. Yu. Nespravedlivye dogovornye usloviya v grazhdanskom prave Rossii i za rubezhom: sravnitelno-pravovoy analiz [Unfair Contractual Conditions in Civil Law of Russia and Abroad: Comparative Legal Analysis]. Vestnik VEGU, 2017, no. 6, pp. 150—156.

Mik E. Smart Contracts: Terminology, Technical Limitations and Real World Complexity. Law, Innovation & Technology, 2017, no. 9.

Nazarova L. Ye. Nadlezhashchee ispolnenie obyazatelstva: ponyatie, printsipy i predmet [The Proper Performance of the Obligation: the Concept, Principles and Subject Matter]. Nauka. Obshchestvo. Obrazovanie. Materialy Vserosckoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (Irkutsk, 25 maya 2018 goda). Ed. by Ye. V. Barasheva. Irkutsk, 2018. Pp. 100—102.

Nikolaeva V. A. Estoppel i ego primenenie v grazhdanskom prave Rossii [Estoppel and its Implementation in Civil Law of Russia]. Trudy molodykh uchenykh Altayskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2016, no. 13, pp. 321—324.

Novoselova L. A. “Tokenizatsiya” obektov grazhdanskogo prava [“Tokenization” of the Objects of Civil Law]. Khozyaistvo i pravo, 2017, no. 12, pp. 29—44.

Oleynik Ye. V. Smart-kontrakt: ponyatie i perspektivy razvitiya v Rossii [Smart Contract: Definition and Perspectives of its Implementation in Russia]. Teoriya i praktika razvitiya predprinimatelstva: sovremennye kontseptsii, tsifrovye tekhnologii i effektivnaya sistema: materialy VI Mezhdunarodnogo kongressa (Moskva, 24—25 maya 2018 goda). Ed. by A. V. Sharkova, O. N. Vasileva, B. Otorova. 2018. Pp. 309—313.

Raskin M. The Law and Legality of Smart Contracts. Georgetown Law Technology Review, 2017, vol 1:2, no. 305.

Sachin M. Electronic Agents are Helpful and Without Risks for Business as well as Consumers. Available at: (accessed 20.09.2018).

Savelev A. I. Dogovornoe pravo 2.0: “umnye” kontrakty kak nachalo kontsa klassicheskogo dogovornogo prava [Contract Law 2.0: “Smart Contracts” and the Beginning of the End of the Classic Contract Law]. Vestnik grazhdanskogo prava, 2016, no. 3, pp. 32—60.

Semenova Ye. V. Pravovaya priroda estoppelya, ego proiskhozhdenie i ponyatiynoe soderzhanie [The Legal Nature of Estoppel, Its Origin and Conceptual Maintenance]. Pravovaya kultura, 2018, no. 1, pp. 126—130.

Sushkova I. A. Obshchie i spetsialnye sposoby zashchity narushennykh grazhdanskikh prav [General and Special Methods of Protection of Violated Civil Rights]. Teoriya i praktika obshchestvennogo razvitiya, 2011, no. 6, pp. 220—223.

Szabo N. Smart Contracts: Building Blocks for Digital Markets. 1996. Available at: (accessed 20.09.2018).

Weitzenboeck E. M. Electronic Agents and the Formation of Contracts. International Journal of Law and Information Technology, 2001, vol. 9, no. 3.

Wettig S., Zehendner E. The Electronic Agent: A Legal Personality under German Law? Materials of the 2nd Workshop on the Law and Electronic Agents (LEA 2003). Edinburgh, 2003, June 24.

Yagubova U. R. Problemy primeneniya norm dogovornogo prava k smart-kontraktam, osushchestvlyaemym v informatsionnoy platforme blokcheyn (blockchain) [Issues of Application of Contract Law to Smart Contracts Executed in Blockchain Information Platform]. Vestnik sovremennykh issledovaniy, 2018, no. 4.1, pp. 394—396.

Zimneva S. V., Lukyanenko M. F. Dobrosovestnost i razumnost povedeniya kak osnovanie osvobozhdeniya ot grazhdansko-pravovoy otvetstvennosti [Good Faith and Reasonableness as Grounds for the Exemption from Civil Liability]. Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2017, no. 8, pp. 42—49.

Wettig S., Zehendner E. The Electronic Agent: A Legal Personality under German Law? Materials of the 2nd Workshop on the Law and Electronic Agents (LEA 2003). Edinburgh, 2003, June 24.

Yagubova U. R. Problemy primeneniya norm dogovornogo prava k smart-kontraktam, osushchestvlyaemym v informatsionnoy platforme blokcheyn (blockchain) [Issues of Application of Contract Law to Smart Contracts Executed in Blockchain Information Platform]. Vestnik sovremennykh issledovaniy, 2018, no. 4.1, pp. 394—396.

Zimneva S. V., Lukyanenko M. F. Dobrosovestnost i razumnost povedeniya kak osnovanie osvobozhdeniya ot grazhdansko-pravovoy otvetstvennosti [Good Faith and Reasonableness as Grounds for the Exemption from Civil Liability]. Gosudarstvo i pravo, 2017, no. 8, pp. 42—49.

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■ Comparative Researches of Criminal Law, Criminology and Criminal Executive Law



senior research fellow of the Department of foreign constitutional, administrative, criminal legislation and international law, senior lecturer at the Department of state-legal disciplines of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218

In this article the author examines on the basis of normative and doctrinal sources the main trends related to the informatisation of modern Swiss criminal justice. As its main reason, the transition to an informational (post-industrial) society is considered, which in Switzerland is felt more noticeable and stronger than in many other European countries, due to the developed banking sector, the presence of a highly technological economy and other reasons. The main manifestations of informatisation in the criminal process of this country were considered on the historic basis of first single CCP of October 5, 2007 (formerly 26 cantonal codes): 1) use of information technologies to inform the public about criminal proceedings (including in the context of protecting the principle of the presumption of innocence); 2) development and maintenance of electronic identification systems (for criminal registration, when creating and processing personal data of a person); 3) the development of electronic document management in the criminal process (the possibility of filing some documents in criminal proceedings on electronic media); 4) the admissibility of the use of videoconferencing in the production of certain procedural actions, the fixing in the Code of Criminal Procedure of a new investigative action not previously regulated in the law, involving the use of modern information technologies — monitoring banking relations (for example, in order to counter the financing of terrorism and legitimization of income).
Also, some limitations in the informatisation of the Swiss criminal process are considered: 1) the prohibition of photo and video filming in court when considering civil, criminal and other cases (as in the criminal process in the US and some other countries); 2) absence of a norm on mandatory video recording of investigative and other procedural actions involving minor witnesses and victims; 3) the lack of elaboration in the doctrine of this country of the “electronic criminal case” category. 
Comparative legal conclusions are drawn regarding the subject of the study, including by comparing the positive Swiss and Russian experience.

Keywords: informatisation, information technology, criminal process, supervision of banking relations, Switzerland.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.11



Donatsch A., Hansjakob T., Lieber V. Kommentar zur Schweizerischen Strafprozessordnung (StPO) [Comment to the Swiss Code of Criminal Procedure (StPO)]. Zürich, 2010. 2178 p.

Niggli M. A., Stefan Heimgartner. Art. 9. In Niggli M., Heer M., Wiprächtiger H. Schweizerischen Strafprozessordnung. Jugendstrafprozessordnung [Swiss Code of Criminal Procedure. Youth Code of Criminal Procedure]. Basel, 2010. 2364 p.

Niggli M., Heer M., Wiprächtiger H. Schweizerischen Strafprozessordnung. Jugendstrafprozessordnung [Swiss Code of Criminal Procedure. Youth Code of Criminal Procedure]. Basel, 2010.

Podustova O. L. Nablyudenie za bankovskimi operatsiyami kak sposob zashchity imushchestvennykh prav poterpevshikh [Supervision of banking operations as a way to protect the property rights of victims]. Vestnik Krasnodarskogo universiteta MVD Rossii, 2017, no. 1, pp. 52—55.

Pravosudie v sovremennom mire [Justice in the modern world]. Ed. by V. M. Lebedev, T. Y. Khabrieva. Moscow, 2012. 872 p.

Ugolovnyy protsess evropeyskikh stran [The criminal process of European countries]. Ed. by V. I. Samarin, V. V. Lutsik. Moscow, 2018. 892 p.

”Ya byl vpechatlen tem, chto uvidel v rossiyskikh sudakh”. Intervyu s predsedatelem Federalnogo suda Shveytsarii Lorentsom Mayerom [“I was impressed by what I saw in the Russian courts.” Interview with the President of the Federal Court of Switzerland Lorenz Mayer]. Zakon, 2010, no. 11, pp. 7—11.

Yakushev O. A. Pravovye pozitsii YeSPCh i tendentsii razvitiya nalogovogo prava RF [Legal Positions of the ECHR and Trends in the Development of Tax Law in the Russian Federation]. Nalogovye spory: teoriya i praktika, 2008, no. 2, pp. 72—74.

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associate professor at the Law Institute of the Siberian Federal University, candidate of legal sciences
6, Maerchak st., Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 660075

The study deals with the concept of suspicion in the criminal procedure law of Germany. The suspicion is the central element of entire German criminal process. The doctrine of suspicion has a long standing history in the criminal procedure law of Germany, so its analysis made by this research is of great importance for Russian law enforcers. The presence of the initial suspicion is the basis for conducting a preliminary investigation. In the absence of suspicion, the preliminary investigation in Germany cannot be initiated or the initiated investigation should be immediately terminated by the public prosecutor. The presence of suspicion in Germany is the basis to apply measures of criminal procedural coercion, because the interference in constitutional rights and freedoms of a person from the criminal prosecution organs is permissible only when the suspicion is established. The suspicion is necessary for a person to acquire the procedural status of the accused. That is why the definition of the initial suspicion concept, the moment it occurs and the way every specific occasion states the initial suspicion availability are of particular interest. The article considers the elements of the initial suspicion and the tools, which are developed by the German judicial practice and doctrine to verify the presence or absence of the initial suspicion. The article considers the differentiation issue between different participants in criminal proceedings (the accused and the witness under suspicion), which are considered in the German criminal process due to the suspicion, and the ways of its solution.

Keywords: suspicion, initial suspicion, accused, witness under suspicion.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.12



Albrecht A. H. et al. Systematischer Kommentar zur StPO [Systematic comment on the Code of the Criminal Procedure]. Köln, 2016. 1459 p.

Boylke V. Ugolovno-protsessualnoe pravo FRG [Criminal Procedure Law of Germany]. Ed. by L. V. Mayorova. Krasnoyarsk, 2004. 325 p.

Forkert-Hosser S. Vorermittlungen im Strafprozessrecht: Erhebung und Verwendung von Daten vor dem Anfangsverdacht [Preliminary investigation in criminal procedure Law: Collection and use of data before the initial suspicion]. Frankfurt am Main, 2011. 399 p.

Haas G. Vorermittlungen und Anfangsverdacht [Pre-investigations and initial suspicions]. Berlin, 2003. 109 p.

Heger M. Strafprozessrecht [Criminal procedural Law]. Stuttgart, 2013. 188 p.

Putzke H., Scheinfeld J. Strafprozessrecht [Criminal procedural Law]. München, 2012. 213 p.

Schroeder F. C. Strafprozessrecht [Criminal procedural Law]. München, 2014. 298 p.

Sommer U. Effektive Strafverteidigung [Effective criminal defense]. 3 Aufl. Köln, 2016. 257 p.

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senior investigator of the Yuzha district investigative unit of the Investigative department of the Investigative Committee of Russia for the Ivanovo region, postgraduate student at the Moscow academy of the Investigative Committee of Russia
5, Zhidelev st., Ivanovo, Russia, 153002

The article is devoted to the investigation of criminal cases on tax crimes in Germany. The author analyzed the sources of German law, such as criminal, criminal procedure and tax codes. In the course of studying German legislation it was established that the punishability of tax offenses, the specifics of the process of tax crimes cases are determined by special norms that are not contained in the criminal and criminal procedural codes, but in the Tax Code of Germany. Also, the issues of qualification of tax crimes are considered. The article reflects the specifics of the investigation of criminal cases on criminal tax evasion. Thus, fiscal authorities are entitled to conduct preliminary investigations on tax crimes. In case if the investigation was conducted by another body, the tax authority has the right to participate in the investigative actions. In addition, the investigating authority is obliged to notify the financial authority of the indictment to the court, and if the termination of the criminal proceedings is under consideration, the Prosecutor’s office has to take into account the opinion of the competent financial authority on the matter. The article provides statistical data on the activities of financial authorities in the fight against tax crime, compensation for damage, termination of procedures in case of performing duties and instructions and the termination of criminal prosecution in special cases in connection with the payment of taxes, interest and compensation, determined as a percentage of the amount of unpaid taxes. The results of such work of the German fiscal authorities are compared with the results of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: tax crimes, German Tax Code, financial authorities, the termination of criminal prosecution in connection with the payment of taxes.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.13



Bakaev A. V. Nalogovye prestupleniya: istoriko-sravnitelnyy i ugolovno-pravovoy analiz [Tax crimes: a historical-comparative and criminal law analysis]. Cand. diss. Rostov-on-Don, 2008. 204 p.

Burkhard J. Verschärfung der Selbstanzeige nach § 371 AO. Available at: beispiel-zu-einem-grossfall-selbstanzeige_168_271188.html (accessed 25.09.2018).

Federativnaya Respublika Germaniya: Ugolovno-protsessualnyy kodeks [Federal Republic of Germany: Code of Criminal Procedure]. Translated by B. A. Filimonov. Moscow, 1994. 204 p.

Golovenkov P., Spitsa N. Ugolovno-protsessualnyy kodeks Federativnoy Respubliki Germaniya [Criminal Procedure Code of the Federal Republic of Germany] — Strafprocessordnung (StPO): nauchno-prakticheskiy kommentariy i perevod teksta zakona. Moscow, 2012. 408 p.

Khachatryan A. K. Osvobozhdenie ot ugolovnoy otvetstvennosti za prestupleniya v sfere ekonomicheskoy deyatelnosti [Exemption from criminal liability for crimes in the sphere of economic activity]. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2015. 168 p.

Sedelkina V. V. Dosudebnoe proizvodstvo po ugolovnym delam o nalogovykh prestupleniyakh: analiz zakonodatelstva Belarusi i Rossii [Pre-trial criminal proceedings on tax crimes: analysis of the legislation of Belarus and Russia]. Mezhdunarodnoe ugolovnoe pravo i mezhdunarodnaya yustitsiya, 2018, no. 5, pp. 12—15.

Vasilev V. V. Otvetstvennost za nalogovye prestupleniya v Skandinavskikh stranakh (sravnitelno-pravovoy analiz) [Responsibility for tax crimes in the Scandinavian countries (comparative legal analysis)]. Cand. diss. Nizhny Novgorod, 2007. 194 p.

Vaskevich K. Pravovoe regulirovanie otvetstvennosti za narusheniya nalogovogo zakonodatelstva v FRG [Legal regulation of liability for violations of tax laws in Germany]. Gosudarstvennaya sluzhba, 2015, no. 2, pp. 96—99.

Vlasenko V. V. Osvobozhdenie ot ugolovnoy otvetstvennosti po delam o prestupleniyakh v sfere ekonomicheskoy deyatelnosti [Exemption from criminal liability in cases of crimes in the sphere of economic activity]. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2014. 238 p.

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senior research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences, associate professor
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218

The article raises the issues of legislative regulation of social relations in the sphere of combating unfair competition. The author determines the specific contradictions in the legislative acts of the criminal and administrative nature aimed at regulating the responsibility for such acts. He reveals similar and different ways of legal regulation of these public relations. Particularly relevant is the fact that these industries have similar subject and method of regulation.
The purpose of the article is to study the issues of ration between criminal and administrative legislation in terms of combating unfair competition in Russia. Identify opportunities for joint application of similar legislative provisions in the industry. Comparison of administrative and criminal impact on persons who violate the rules of fair competition, but not only in terms of liability, but also in terms of the prevention of such offenses.
In the preparation of the article a set of general scientific and private scientific methods of c ognition was used: dialectical method, method of analysis and synthesis, logical method, method of comparative law, sociological, historical, formal-logical and other scientific methods. The basis is not only the normative material, but also the decisions of the Supreme judicial bodies.
According to the results of the study, the author comes to the conclusion that the difference between approaches in normative legal acts of different branches of law can be solved by bringing them to a single procedural denominator and allowing the possibility of mixing (combining) criminal and administrative sanctions within one punishment for one offense.

Keywords: competition, market, monopoly, responsibility, criminal, administrative.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.14



Kubantsev S. P. Obzor russko-frantsuzskogo seminara “Otvetstvennost yuridicheskikh lits v konkurentnom prave” [Responsibility of legal entities in competition law], posvyashchennogo pamyati professora Universiteta Parizh 1 Panteon-Sorbonna Zherara Marku. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2017, no. 5.

Kubantsev S. P. Publichno-pravovye sredstva protivodeystviya nedobrosovestnoy konkurentsii: aspekty Rossii i SShA [Public legal means of combating unfair competition: aspects of Russia and the United States]. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2017, no. 4.

Osnovaniya otvetstvennosti yuridicheskikh lits: grazhdansko-pravovye, administrativno-pravovye i ugolovno-pravovye aspekty [Grounds for liability of legal entities: civil, administrative and criminal aspects]: sbornik materialov Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (Moskva, 24 oktyabrya 2016 goda). Ed. by A. I. Kovler, Yu. V. Truntsevskiy, O. I. Semykina, O. A. Ternovaya. Moscow, 2017.

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■ Countering Corruption



senior research fellow of the Department of countering corruption methodology of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218

The Institute of anti-corruption expertise of normative legal acts and their projects along with the Institute of legal monitoring occupy one of the most important places among the tools aimed at improving the efficiency of legislation and law enforcement practice. Achieving their goals and objectives, these institutions allow evaluating the results of normative activities, to analyze and assess the compliance of the practice of implementing laws and other legal acts with the planned result of legal regulation, to prepare proposals for improving legislation in a timely manner. At the same time, it seems that anti-corruption expertise should be associated with technologies of legal monitoring and thus contribute to improving the quality of legal acts.
In order to determine the effectiveness of the institutions of anti-corruption expertise and legal monitoring, the article set the task of analyzing and assessing their legal regulation in Russia and a number of foreign countries, as well as implementation in practice. In particular, we focused on the issues of the powers of the entities entitled to the rights and duties of an expert action, issues of information security related activities, use of the results obtained.
According to the results of the study, the author comes to the conclusion that the effectiveness of anti-corruption expertise as an element of legal monitoring is reduced due to a number of factors, including: the lack of response measures in relation to the identified corruptiogenic factors, low requirements for experts, the lack of proper consideration of evidence-based methods in the process of examination.

Keywords: anti-corruption expertise, prevention of corruption, corruption factors, legal monitoring, normative legal acts, comparative jurisprudence.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.15



Bedoeva Z. N. Byudzhetnyy monitoring: pravovoy aspekt [Budget monitoring: the legal aspect]. Monitoring pravoprimeneniya, 2018, no. 4, pp. 47—51.

Dadonov T. Ye. Nezavisimaya antikorruptsionnaya ekspertiza: problemy i napravleniya razvitiya [Independent Anticorruption Expertise: problems and ways of development]. Sovremennye problemy vzaimodeystviya rossiyskogo gosudarstva i obshchestva. Saratov, 2016. Pp. 124—126.

Khabrieva T. Y. Formirovanie pravovykh osnov antikorruptsionnoy ekspertizy normativnykh pravovykh aktov [Formation of legal basis for Anti-Corruption Expertise of Normative Legal Acts]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2009, no. 10, pp. 5—14.

Loy Ye. V. Perspektivy sovershenstvovaniya instituta antikorruptsionnoy ekspertizy v ramkakh provedeniya administrativnoy reformy [Prospects of Improvement of Anti-Corruption Examination Institution in Context of Administrative Reform Implementation]. Administrativnoe pravo i protsess, 2017, no. 12, pp. 64—67.

Pravovoy monitoring [Legal monitoring]. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov, D. B. Gorokhov. Moscow, 2009. 416 p.

Tikhomirov Yu. A. Effektivnost zakona: ot tseli k rezultatu [Efficiency of law: from the goal to result]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2009, no. 4, pp. 3—9.

Tikhomirov Yu. A., Pavlushkin A. V., Gorokhov D. B., Chesnokova M. D., Cherepanova Ye. V., Glazkova M. Ye. Ob organizatsii i provedenii pravovogo monitoringa [On organization and Leading of Legal Monitoring]. Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava, 2010, no. 6, pp. 125—136.

Tlembaeva Zh. U., Turlybek D. M. Pravovoy monitoring kak instrument modernizatsii natsionalnoy pravovoy sistemy Respubliki Kazakhstan [Legal monitoring as a tool for modernization of national legal system of the republic of Kazakhstan]. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2018, no. 4, pp. 5—11.

Vladimir Putin prinyal uchastie v rabote IX Vserossiyskogo sezda sudey [V. Putin participated at IX Russian Conference of Judges]. Available at:

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■ Land, Natural Resources, Ecological, Agrarian Law of Russia and Foreign Countries



leading research fellow of the Department of foreign constitutional, administrative, criminal legislation and international law of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences, associate professor
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218

The relevance of scientific research of modern aspects of legal regulation of marine living resources harvesting in the Arctic is that in this region the corresponding activity is one of the most common. At the same time, the legal regulation of this type of activity both at the level of international legal acts and in domestic legislation is insufficient, since it does not reflect its specificity.
To study the actual problems of legal regulation of the Arctic marine living resources fishery, international treaties of universal and regional levels, the provisions of bilateral international treaties in the part concerning the legal regulation of cooperation between the Russian Federation and neighboring States in the Arctic region, regulatory and other legal acts of the Russian Federation regulating the fishery of marine living resources, as well as affecting the development of the Arctic were analyzed.
In order to conduct an effective study, the method of historical analysis was used to study the formation and further development of international legal regulation of the extraction of marine living resources. Also, the method of system analysis was used, which helped to present a complete system of sources regulating the extraction of marine living resources of the Arctic region and including international treaties and legislation of the Russian Federation.
It seems appropriate to improve both international and domestic legal mechanisms for the legal regulation of fisheries for marine living resources in the Arctic region. It is important to note that the development of legal regulation should be carried out in compliance with the following requirements: taking into account the interests of the Arctic States, respect for the rights and freedoms of indigenous peoples of the Arctic, consolidation of measures to protect the environment of the region.

Keywords: Arctic, international treaties, Russian Federation, marine living resources, environmental protection.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.16



Abramova A. I., Avkhadeev V. R., Andrichenko L. V. et al. Arkticheskoe pravo: kontseptsiya razvitiya [Arctic law: conception of the development]. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva. Moscow, 2014.

Glubokov A. I., Glubokovskiy M. K. Mezhdunarodno-pravovoe regulirovanie rybolovstva v arkticheskikh moryakh [The international legal regulation of fisheries in the Arctic seas]. Arktika: zona mira i sotrudnichestva. Ed. by A. V. Zagorskiy. Moscow, 2011.

Khabrieva T. Y., Kapustin A. Ya. O fenomene arkticheskogo prava v kontekste pravovogo razvitiya Rossii [On the phenomenon of Arctic law in the context of the legal development of Russia]. Vestnik Rossiyskoy akademii nauk, 2015, no. 5—6.

Kukushkina A. V., Shishkin V. N. Arktika: okhrana okruzhayushchey sredy pri dobyche uglevodorodov. Mezhdunarodno-pravovye aspekty. [The Arctic: environment protection for hydrocarbon extraction. International law aspects]. Moscow, 2010.

Ponomarev M. V. Pravovoe regulirovanie okhrany vodnykh obektov ot zagryazneniy otkhodami proizvodstva i potrebleniya [Legal regulation of the protection of water objects from pollution by production and consumption wastes]. Vodnoe zakonodatelstvo i ekologicheskie vyzovy: sbornik materialov nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (Moskva, 15 iyunya 2012 goda). Ed. by S. A. Bogolyubov et al. Moscow, 2012.

Realizatsiya Strategicheskogo plana po zashchite arkticheskoy morskoy sredy [Implementation of the Strategic Plan for the Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment]. Available at:

Sennikov S. A. Sovremennye problemy rybolovstva v morskom rayone arkhipelaga Shpitsbergen [Modern problems of realization of fishery in marine area of Spitsbergen archipelago]. In Naryshkin S. Ye., Khabrieva T. Y., Kobylkin D. N. et al. Rossiyskaya Arktika — territoriya prava: almanakh. Iss. II. Sokhranenie i ustoychivoe razvitie Arktiki: pravovye aspekty. Ed. by V. P. Yemelyantsev, E. A. Galinovskaya. Moscow, 2015.

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■ Labor Law, Social Welfare Law



lecturer at the College of Law of the Law Institute of the Russian University of Transport
9, Obraztsov st., Moscow, Russia, 127994

This article is devoted to the consideration of the issue of providing guarantees and compensation to persons working on the road, in transit and in the field. Despite the fact that the labor law regulates the procedure for granting guarantees and compensations, the reasons for their occurrence and the procedure for their provision in sufficient detail, at the same time, the list of possible guarantees and compensations can not be limited only to those directly stipulated in labor legislation. In the event that the parties to labor relations come to the opinion that it is advisable to consolidate the rights of an employee that improves his position in comparison with the norms of the current labor legislation, the parties are entitled to establish them in local regulatory acts, contracts, and other documents concluded on a voluntary basis. It does not contain a separate rule that establishes this possibility, but there are a number of norms in it that fix this option in individual cases (see, for example, Articles 1681, 287, 313, 34810). Thus, it can be concluded that the law gives the parties of the employment contract the opportunity to independently fix the norms that improve the position of the employee in comparison with the general norms contained in labor legislation.
The practical significance of the research is that the theoretical and methodological provisions contained therein can be further used in the development of specific measures aimed at improving the legal regulation in this field.

Keywords: guarantees, compensation for workers engaged in labor activities on the road, in transit and in the field.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.17



Akimova V. M. Vozmeshchenie raskhodov v svyazi so sluzhebnymi poezdkami. Nalogovyy vestnik, 2008, no. 7.

Bulaev S. V. Putevye raskhody v razyasneniyakh ministerstv i vedomstv. Transportnye uslugi: bukhgalterskiy uchet i nalogooblozhenie, 2008, no. 2.

Lartseva L. Vyplaty za razezdnoy kharakter raboty: nadbavka k zarplate ili kompensatsiya raskhodov. Uchrezhdeniya kultury i iskusstva: bukhgalterskiy uchet i nalogooblozhenie, 2008, no. 9.

Morozov P. Ye., Chanyshev A. S. Trudovoe pravo stran Yevraziyskogo ekonomicheskogo soyuza. Moscow, 2016. Pp. 228—231.

Osobennosti pravovogo regulirovaniya truda otdelnykh kategoriy rabotnikov. Ed. by Yu. P. Orlovskiy. Moscow, 2014. 304 p.

Panov P. A. Kompensatsionnye vyplaty i kompensatsii v trudovom prave. Ed. by D. L. Kuznetsov. Moscow, 2011. 88 p.

Sudebnaya praktika v sovremennoy pravovoy sisteme Rossii. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva, V. V. Lazarev. Moscow, 2017. 432 p.

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■ Legal Events



research fellow of the Center of foreign legislation and comparative law of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218

The article continues a series of scientific and analytical studies on the review of the findings of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission) on the issues of judicial power and reforms. This review discusses the results of the 115th and 116th sessions of the Venice Commission, held in October and December 2018, respectively. The article outlines the expert positions of the Venice Commission regarding judicial reforms in Romania, Georgia, Kazakhstan and Malta.
Thus, the transformation of the judicial system in Romania takes place against the backdrop of the fight against corruption. Corruption offenses have led to a number of controversial legislative decisions, including increased control over judges and the expansion of the mechanism of their responsibility. The Venice Commission has come to the unequivocal conclusion that as a result of the reforms being conducted, a threat to the independence of judges is being created.
The authorities of Kazakhstan are reforming the bodies of the judicial community, in particular, the redistribution of powers between the Supreme Court and the Supreme Judicial Council. In general, while positively assessing the changes being made, the Venice Commission nevertheless made a number of recommendations on how to strengthen the independence of judges.
Georgia is undergoing reform of the judicial community. The proposed changes did not provoke lengthy comments from the Venice Commission, and the recommendations set out in the Opinion concerned the need to clarify the conceptual framework.
The judicial authority of Malta has also become the subject of attention of the Venice Commission. In general, while commending the development of the institutions of justice, the Commission strongly recommended reducing the remaining excessively high level of influence of the Prime Minister of Malta.

Keywords: Venice Commission, judicial reform in Romania, the judicial system of Georgia, the judicial system of Kazakhstan, the judicial system of Malta.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.2.18



Ablaeva E. B. O edinoobrazii sudebnoy praktiki v Kazakhstane po nekotorym delam, vytekayushchim iz publichnykh pravootnosheniy [On the Uniformity of Judicial Practice in Kazakhstan on Certain Cases Arising from Public Legal Relations]. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2018, no. 5, pp. 22—31.

Kleandrov M. I. Konstitutsionnye i zakonodatelnye osobennosti formirovaniya sudeyskogo korpusa v gosudarstvakh — uchastnikakh SNG [Constitutional and legislative features of the formation of the judiciary in the CIS member states]. Rossiyskaya yustitsiya, 2018, no. 9, pp. 2—6.

Li S. M. Ogranichenie prav dolzhnika v Respublike Kazakhstan. Ogranichenie prav dolzhnika: novelly zakonodatelstva i praktika primeneniya [The Restriction of the Rights of the Debtor: the Latest Legislative Changes and their Implementation]: sbornik materialov VI Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii (Ulan-Ude, 8—10 sentyabrya 2015 goda). Ed. by A. O. Parfenchikov, V. A. Gureev. Moscow, 2016. 369 p.

Paramonova L. F. Pervyy kazakhstanskiy zakon o sudebnoy ekspertize: khronika izmeneniy [Kazakhstan’s First Law on Forensic Inquiry: A Chronicle of Change]. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2018, no. 5, pp. 114—120.

Primer dlya Rossii [Example for Russia]. Novye izvestiya. Available at: (accessed 25.10.2018).

Venetsianskaya komissiya o problemakh pravosudiya v sovremennom mire: sbornik analiticheskikh materialov Venetsianskoy komissii Soveta Yevropy [Venice Commission on the problems of justice in the modern world: Collection of analytical materials of the Venice Commission of the Council of Europe]. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva, A. I. Kovler, E. A. Fokin, S. V. Chirkin. Moscow, 2018. 456 p.

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O. A. TERNOVAYA, leading research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences

O. I. SEMYKINA, senior research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences

This article provides an overview of the Franco-Russian Seminar "Repressive sanctions (criminal or administrative) in respect of legal entities against other sanctions (sanctions against individuals or civil penalties) / Les sanctions répressives (pénale sou administratives) à l’encontre des personnes morales faceaux autres sanctions (sanctions à l’encontre des personnes physiques, ou sanctions civiles)" (Paris, 27 November 2018).

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O. V. MURATOVA, senior research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences

A. I. SHCHUKIN, leading research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences

This article provides an overview of the Round table "Problems of recognition and enforcement of foreign courts' decisions and foreign arbitration decisions" (Moscow, 14 November 2018).

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■ Monitoring of the Foreign Countries Legislation  Pdf 16

■ New Books  Pdf 16

Books published by the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation

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