Contents # 4/2020

■ STATE AND LAW IN MODERN WORLD: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND HISTORY

Some Reflexions about Legal Pluralism  Pdf 16

Rouland N.

Aix-Marseille University, Marseille 13007, France
E-mail: norbert.rouland@wanadoo.fr

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.028

Abstract. This article will be focused on two aspects of legal pluralism: legal history and legal anthropology which, in France, are strongly associated. Legal pluralism has always been concerned by the problem of relations between customs and Folk Law one side, that means living and fluent law; other side, State law of centered power, more abstract and rigid.
The first part will be more historical. We shall study the statute of customs in three centralized States: China, Russia and France. About China, it will be necessary to precise the place in customs in the Chinese legal thought and administration system of Chinese Empire, which is very different of the western Empires. After, we shall study the fate of customs in national minorities of South China, starting from 1949 to nowadays. About Russia and France, we shall give some data about same problems, in history and nowadays, with the particularity of Russian federalism.
The second part will be more theoretical. We shall try to explain what are the diverse theories of legal pluralism, which is the main current in legal anthropology today. All consider that State Law is not the unic law in any society. But the recognition of this fact by State and jurists is very variable, in the past and today. Moreover, the degree of plurality of law is not the same according the period. And it depends of the characteristics of the legal culture of each society. Common law systems more welcome legal pluralism.
We shall give a peculiar attention to the theories of Dutch author Van Den Steenhoven, who analysed legal pluralism in the context of colonialism, and also to the Japanese author Masaji Chiba, a legal anthropologist of Asian countries, who has written a lot of academic papers about legal pluralism in these countries.

Keywords: legal anthropology, legal pluralism, customs, state law, legal culture, common law system, Van Den Steenhoven, Masaji Chiba.

For citation: Rouland N. Some Reflexions about Legal Pluralism. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 5—15. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.028 (In Russ.)

References

Alain Wang. Les Chinois, Paris, Tallandier, 2018.

Anatoli Kovler. L’anthropologie juridique russe, Droit et Cultures, 50/2009-2, pp. 1—15. Translation in chinese language by Pr. Weichen forthcoming; Le federalisme russe a la croisee des chemins, publication in french forthcoming. Antonio Gambaro, Rodolfo Sacco, Louis Vogel. Le droit de l’Occident et d’ailleurs, Paris, LGDJ, 2011, 387sq.

Brigitte Baptandier. La Chine d’un point de vue anthropologique, Etudes chinoises, 2010, 219—233.

Catherine Capdeville. Mariage et amour en Chine-Les échanges et les sentiments dans les mariages dans un village du d’aujourd’hui, Quatrième congrès du réseau Asie et Pacifique, Paris, septembre 2011.

Chen Zhongshi. Bailayuan, Renmin Wenxue, Beijing, 1993.

Claude Levi Strauss. L’anthropologie face aux problemes du monde moderne, Paris, Le Seuil, 2011, pp. 36—39.

Françoise Grenot-Wang. Chine du Sud-la mosaique des minorites, Paris, les Indes savantes, 2017.

Leslie Chang. La fabrique des femmes-du village a l’usine: deux jeunes Chinoises racontent, Belfond, Paris, 2009.

Norbert Rouland. Legal Anthropology, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 1994. Translated in chinese by Pr. Liu Yun Fei, Guiyang University (Publication in China forthcoming).

Shuaijiun Mallet-Jiang. Mao Zedong et l’évolution des droits de la femme en Chine, E-Crini, La revue electronique du centre de recherche sur les identites nationales et l’interculturalite, Université de Nantes.

Tania Angeloff. Le féminisme en République Populaire chinoise: entre ruptures et continuité, Revue Tiers-monde, 2012/1, numéro 209, pp. 89—106.

Xinran. The good women of China, 2002.

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■ CONSTITUTIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LAW

The Doctrine of the Presumption of Innocence in the Digital Age  Pdf 16

Hajiyev Kh. I.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: khanlar9999@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.029

Abstract. A significant progress of digital technologies over the past decades has re-emphasized the role of the presumption of innocence as a fundamental human right and an integral part of justice. The right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty — in accordance with the procedure established by law — is a constitutional right of every person and serves as an effective means of achieving the rule of law. The right to a fair trial and criminal proceedings are closely linked. The criminal procedure law prescribes the rules that the rights of the suspect and accused must be observed through a proper assessment. Some of these rules are independent legal concepts and form the content of the general doctrine of the presumption of innocence and are expressed in: the right to defense, the right to remain silent and not to be a witness against oneself, the burden of proof and the prohibition to base a sentence on assumptions. The State seeks to exercise effective control over the legal order within criminal proceedings. The implementation of this function should not conflict with the protection of human rights, since their interaction benefits the entire criminal justice by demonstrating the ability to bring to justice those who have committed an offence; and by ensuring that all procedural rights are respected in order to maintain general justice.
The increased use of digital technologies ensures public safety, reinforces legal order and prevents offences. It can improve modern investigative methods and significantly increase the quality of evidence collection and examination. At the same time, an active recourse to the achievements in the field of digital technologies should be accompanied by the respect of human rights, including the right to be presumed innocent.

Keywords: presumption of innocence, digital technologies, proof, guilt, justice, defense, prosecution, criminal justice, legal order.

For citation: Hajiyev Kh. I. The Doctrine of the Presumption of Innocence in the Digital Age. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 16—30. DOI: 10.12737/ jflcl.2020.029 (In Russ.)

References

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Ashworth A., Redmayne M. The Criminal Process. Oxford University Press, 2005.

Baradaran S. Restoring the Presumption of Innocence. Ohio State Law Review, 2011, vol. 72, no. 4.

Fiori B. M. Disclosure of information in criminal proceedings. Netherlands, 2015.

Galetta A. The Changing Nature of the Presumption of Innocence in Today’s Surveillance Societies: Rewrite Human Rights or Regulate the Use of Surveillance Technologies? European Journal of Law and Technology, 2013, vol. 4, no. 2.

Lupinskaya P. A. Izbrannye trudy. Moscow, 2017.

MacPartholan C. Silencing Silence? The Right to Silence and the “Opt Out” of New EU Directive on Criminal Proceeding. Criminal Law and Justice Weekly, 26 November 2016, no. 180.

Murray D., Fussey P. Bulk Surveillance in the Digital Age: Rethinking The Human Rights Law. Approach to Bulk Monitoring of Communications Data. Israel Law Review, 2019, vol. 52, iss. 1.

Rusinova V. A European Perspective on Privacy and Mass Surveillance at the Crossroads. Series: Law, WP BRP 87/Law/2019.

Simonato M. Defense Rights and the Use of Information Technology in Criminal Procedure. International Review of Penal Law, 2014, vol. 85.

Tadros V. Rethinking the Presumption of Innocence. Criminal Law and Philosophy, 2007, vol. 1, no. 2.

Trechsel S. Human Rights in Criminal Proceedings. Oxford University Press, 2005.

Zor’kin V. D. Pravo v tsifrovom mire. Razmyshleniya na polyakh Peterburgskogo mezhdunarodnogo yuridicheskogo foruma. Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2018, May 29.

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The Constitution: Idea and History (on the Example of Antiquity, England, France, USA and Germany)  Pdf 16

Yumashev Yu. M.

Institute of State and Law, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119019, Russian Federation
E-mail: yuri.marina.ivan@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.030

Abstract. The author successively traces the process of formation and development of the constitutional idea, starting from the Antiquity and ending with the present and the example of the main democratic countries of the West — England, the USA, France and Germany.
The homeland of constitutionalism is the ancient Greek policy, and Aristotle is the main theorist in this field. By studying 158 polis constitutions of his era he concluded that a mixed constitution was a relatively better constitution, since it was precisely such a model that guaranteed a stable political system. An example of such a mixed constitution was the constitution of Sparta. According to Polybius and Cicero, a model of a mixed constitution was also inherent in Ancient Rome.
The Aristotelian model of a mixed constitution is adopted by modern constitutionalism. Thus, the unwritten constitution of England, based on tradition and the law of limitation, limits the prerogatives of the crown in favour of parliament and expands the rights of individuals. The US Constitution has the principle of “checks and balances,” where different levels of government (the federal and state) limit each other, and constitutional justice has the competence of judicial review. In addition, the constitution proclaims the priority of human rights. A feature of the French Constitution is that the concepts of “nation” and “Republic” take precedence over the constitution, and the Constitutional Council is not an independent supervisory authority. Human rights are based on parliamentary laws, not on the constitution. So the constitution plays a smaller role in the political life of France than, for example, in the USA. The basic law (Constitution) of Germany is “tailored to the patterns” of the US Constitution, starting from the priority of human rights and ending with the delineation of power relations between the federation and the land. The Constitutional Court not only protects the fundamental rights of citizens against political, legislative and administrative interference by the state, but also stimulates the development of German constitutionalism in the implementation of the country's political system.
In all the countries examined, the constitutions are based on the sovereignty of the people and are mixed.

Keywords: constitutionalism, mixed constitution, state, human rights.

For citation: Yumashev Yu. M. The Constitution: Idea and History (on the Example of Antiquity, England, France, USA and Germany). Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 31—46. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.030 (In Russ.)

References

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Deliberative Democracy: New Challenges and Opportunities in the Conditions of Developing Information Society  Pdf 16

Alimov E. V., Pomazanskiy A. E.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: const3@izak.ru; const@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.031

Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of the concept of deliberative democracy, taking into account new challenges and the development of the information society. The authors conduct an interdisciplinary analysis of scientific works on law, political science, philosophy on the subject-matter, which allow taking into account various features of this concept of democracy. The importance of scientific research on the mentioned topics is noted, which is confirmed by great attention, both among Russian and foreign researchers.
It is concluded that deliberative democracy is closely connected with traditional types of democracy (direct democracy, representative democracy), but its qualitative difference is a wider approach to the identification of opinions and positions in society, among social and political forces to find consensus. The use of modern information technologies should contribute to a more comfortable and easier use of democratic procedures of various kinds: public discussions, polling of citizens, voting, etc. While the trend of informatization should actively influence the implementation of democratic procedures, we should not forget about the risks and problems that exist in this area. In particular, public authorities together with civil society institutions should jointly provide control over these processes in order to prevent violation of human rights, distortion and deformation of the will of citizens.

Keywords: deliberative democracy, dialogue, public sphere, direct democracy, representative democracy, consensus, informatization.

For citation: Alimov E. V., Pomazanskiy A. E. Deliberative Democracy: New Challenges and Opportunities in the Conditions of Developing Information Society. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 47—66. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.031 (In Russ.)

References

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■ ADMINISTRATIVE LAW. FINANCIAL LAW. INFORMATION LAW

Application of Digital Technologies in the Concept of Open Government in Foreign Countries  Pdf 16

Krysenkova N. B., Chursina T. I., Leschenkov F. A.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: foreign2@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.032

Abstract. The matters of transforming state management from open to digital government have become extremely relevant for the Russian Federation and certain foreign states in recent years. Many jurisdictions are moving much more slowly on this course than Russia does, however certain technologies oriented towards the implementation of the digital government concept have already been tested and installed in certain foreign states. Thus, not only the experience of leading countries in implementing modern technologies into state management is of high relevance, but also the experience of states is also of great interest, where the implementation of modern tech is hindered due to the unavailable daily use of technologies or due to the subsistence levels.
The research analyzes foreign experience of implementing digital tech into state management and the evaluation of ongoing processes connected with moving away from a simple concept of open government towards a modern and sophisticated concept of digital government by expanding potential of advanced IT.
The authors conduct their research by the following methods: analysis, synthesis, comparison, etc.
The authors have made a following final conclusion: despite the robust development of digital state management, a number of states grapple with serious issues of implementing IT in this sphere. Developing countries have to supply the whole state territory and all citizens with relevant infrastructure that would allow increasing efficiency of state management by IT means and raising information literacy skills. Developed countries today are facing problems of preparing skilled specialists in the sphere of IT and IT-security.

Keywords: state governance, open government, digital government, e-government, information technologies, India, Germany, Australia.

For citation: Krysenkova N. B., Chursina T. I., Leschenkov F. A. Application of Digital Technologies in the Concept of Open Government in Foreign Countries. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 67—79. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.032 (In Russ.)

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Yuridicheskaya kontseptsiya robotizatsii. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov, S. B. Nanba. Moscow, 2019.

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■ COMPARATIVE RESEARCHES OF CRIMINAL LAW, CRIMINOLOGY AND CRIMINAL EXECUTIVE LAW

Genesis of the Prosecutor's Office of the Republic of Uzbekistan: “The East Is a Delicate Matter”  Pdf 16

Malikova G. R.

Academy under the General Prosecutor's Office of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent 100047, Republic of Uzbekistan
E-mail: pmmalikova@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.033

Abstract. The author studies the institute of the Prosecutor's office of the Republic of Uzbekistan in its retrospect, since this aspect is not fully studied.
The purpose of the article is to study and understand the genesis, theoretical and practical issues related to the essence and nature of the system of domestic prosecution.
By the method of synthesis, the author connected the disparate parts of the material under study, and by the method of analysis studied it in combination. Thus, for the first time in the study of this Institute, the author drew a parallel between the activities of the muhtasibs, who performed supervisory functions under Sharia law, and the prosecutors created at the courts after the conquest of the Turkestan region by tsarist Russia. The author examines the background and environment in which the Prosecutor's office of the Turkestan region was formed; the path of its formation and development, passed through a collision and shock.
The author considered it necessary, first of all, to study the archival documents and on their basis to study the dynamics of events and decisions taken, laid as the basis for the Institute of public prosecution. They help to better understand the motivation of historical decisions that were directly related to the Prosecutor's office. The actual material presented in them is priceless, so it requires a careful approach, since a number of documents have not yet been fully studied by researchers.
Conclusion: in matters of further development of the strategic course of the Prosecutor's office, first of all, it is necessary to reasonably assess their accumulated historical experience, and only on this basis to develop well-thought-out actions.

Keywords: mukhtasib, kazi (judge), mirshab (policeman), islamic law, tazir (punishment), Kazi-al-kuzzat (supreme judge), rayis (chairman), prosecutor, prosecutor's assistant, bek.

For citation: Malikova G. R. Genesis of the Prosecutor's Office of the Republic of Uzbekistan: “The East Is a Delicate Matter”. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 80—96. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.033 (In Russ.)

References

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Semenov A. A. Bukharskiy traktat o chinakh i zvaniyakh i ob obyazannostyakh nositeley v srednevekovoy Bukhare. Moscow, 1948.

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■ CIVIL LAW. ENTREPRENEURIAL LAW. FAMILY LAW. PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

Legal Regulation of Groups of Companies: Derogation from the Law of Concerns as a Modern Trend (on the Example of Italian Law)  Pdf 16

Fedchuk V. D.

Russian Foreign Trade Academy, Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation, Moscow 119285, Russian Federation
E-mail: fedchuk_valerii@bk.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.034

Abstract. The obvious growth in the size and influence of groups of companies, as well as the recognition of their general legitimacy, increases the relevance of the question of the sufficiency of their private law regulation, the main elements of which are the legal nature and legal policy.
The slowdown in activities aimed at solving this general problem and the particular problems that form it is due to a number of reasons, among which the leading place is occupied by the question of "trust" in the law of German concerns, which still remains a kind of basis for all the rules governing relations of dependence. However, this "monopoly" may be broken in the near future if national legislators accept European recommendations on replacing its mandate norms in this capacity with more lenient and flexible norms. Given the current state of the problem, it can be assumed that some transitional period of time will be required to understand, rethink and implement this essentially revolutionary idea.
One of the few countries that broke this standstill was Italy, whose legislators were able to take a step from recognizing the importance of the problem of groups of companies that dominate the Italian market and can create real problems not only for their participants, but also for a number of other persons, including the state itself, to implementing appropriate reform of the law of companies.

Keywords: vertical and horizontal groups of companies, minority and majority shareholders, internal and external shareholders, direzione e coordinamento (corporatе management and coordination), vantaggi compensative (compensatory advantages).

For citation: Fedchuk V. D. Legal Regulation of Groups of Companies: Derogation from the Law of Concerns as a Modern Trend (on the Example of Italian Law). Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 97—117. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.034 (In Russ.)

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■ INTERNATIONAL AND INTEGRATION LAW. EUROPEAN LAW

The Scientific Activities of the Organizations of Integration Associations in Conditions of Emergencies  Pdf 16

Kovler A. I., Ternovaya O. A., Belyalova A. M., Mekhtiev M. G., Fokin E. A.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: venkom@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.035

Abstract. The article analyzes the scientific and expert activities of international organizations and bodies of integration associations caused by emergencies. These activities focus on developing recommendations to States on situations related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The monitoring of situations and the development of recommendations by the World Health Organization, the Council of Europe, the Venice Commission, the European Union and its research centers, international financial institutions — the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are considered. The analysis of accepted documents is given. The article emphasizes that the unique situation caused by the pandemic creates new parameters of integration processes in the world and in certain regions. At the same time, specific problems of health care, as well as problems of law, economics, and IT are touched upon. An opinion is expressed that the accumulated experience of international and regional cooperation in overcoming the crisis will inevitably encourage States to cooperate more closely in solving these problems.

Keywords: international organizations, integration, emergencies, pandemics, scientific and expert centers.

For citation: Kovler A.I., Ternovaya O. A., Belyalova A. M., Mekhtiev M. G., Fokin E. A. The Scientific Activities of the Organizations of Integration Associations in Conditions of Emergencies. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 118—133. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.035 (In Russ.)

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■ SCIENTIFIC REPORTS

On the Decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court on the European Central Bank's Public Sector Purchase Program  Pdf 16

Mekhtiev M. G.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: mekhtiev.mg@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.036

Abstract. The article analyzes the decision made on May 5, 2020 by the German Federal Constitutional Court on the European Central Bank's program to purchase the EU Member-States' public sector assets. The Constitutional Court recognizes the ECB's stimulus program as ultra vires, since the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union does not provide for the ECB the power to purchase sovereign bonds, as it can provoke inflation. The German Constitutional Court also defines the limits of the ECB powers to conduct international monetary policy, which, in the opinion of the Constitutional Court, does not comply with the provisions of the German Constitution. The research is based on the following methods: dialectics, comparative legal analysis and document analysis. The author concludes that the attempt to limit the powers of the European Central Bank is caused by the need to protect the constitutional identity of Germany and to ensure its financial stability. The latter can be violated by implying unified mechanisms to stabilize the EU financial system and by organizing the euro turnover on the basis of averaged indices in an open market economy within the entire Eurozone. The ECB approaches this matter due to the need to achieve the goals set for it by the Treaty on the functioning of the EU. However, the freedom to choose tools to achieve this goal is based on the principles of an open market economy and this contradicts to the stabilization principles of the German budget in its basic law. As a result, the decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court demonstrates the unsolved problems of the relationship between international (in particular, European) and national law both in theory and in practice.

Keywords: German Federal Constitutional Court, European Central Bank, sovereign bonds, monetary policy.

For citation: Mekhtiev M. G. On the Decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court on the European Central Bank's Public Sector Purchase Program. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 134—138. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.036 (In Russ.)

References

Goebel R. Court of Justice Oversight over the European Central Bank: Delimiting the ECB's Constitutional Autonomy and Independence in the OLAF Judgment. Fordham International Law Journal, 2005, vol. 29, iss. 4.

Goldoni M. The Limits of Legal Accountability of the European Central Bank. George Mason Law Review, 2017, no. 24 (2).

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■ LEGAL EVENTS

Language, Law, and Society in Mass Media Dimension  Pdf 16

Annenkova I. V., Zaloilo M. V., Stebeneva L. V.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.037

Abstract. The article provides an overview of III International scientific conference “Language, law, and society in mass media dimension” held on 25 and 26 September 2019 at the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation with participation of the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Department of Social Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Saint-Petersburg State University and the International Slavists Committee. In the concerned and professional dialogue linguists, lawyers, sociologists and philosophers discussed the issues devoted to the traditions and innovations of the language in law in the era of digitization and global communication, the main problems of mediatization of legal discourse, the operation of language in the media, as well as the status of the state and titular languages, their representation in the mediaspace and the legal regulation of media processes, legal and ethical regulation of verbal behavior, the reflection of social conflicts in media speech, social values in axiosphere of modern media. The participants noted the important role of information space, which became a media translator and interpreter of the information society; identified actual problems of national self-identification and peculiarities of peoples ' mentality, contained in the language; analyzed the risks of destructive transformations of the Russian language in modern media space; justified the necessity of improvement of legal regulation of mass media; analyzed difficulties of comprehension of the legal language and the modern transformation of legal space; comprehended the digital achievements of modern civilization, in which virtual communication becomes the core of culture, dominating, and forming features of perception of information.

Keywords: cultural sovereignty, linguajuristics, mediatization of law, mediatization of legal discourse, media space, legal space, legal sovereignty, mass media, digitalization, jurislinguistics, language sovereignty, language of law, language of law-making.

For citation: Annenkova I. V., Zaloilo M. V., Stebeneva L. V. Language, Law, and Society in Mass Media Dimension. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 4, pp. 139—154. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.037 (In Russ.)

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