Contents # 6/2019

■ STATE AND LAW IN MODERN WORLD: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND HISTORY

Privacy Protection in the Digital Age  Pdf 16

Hajiyev Kh. I.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: khanlar9999@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.1

Abstract
Each era in the development of mankind is characterized by the challenges inherent in the corresponding stage and at the same time by the search for the most appropriate responses to them. The current period is marked by the rapid development of digital technologies that have brought undeniable advantages in the field of information and communications and have been accompanied at the same time by numerous opportunities for interference with privacy, which in turn require the adoption of efficient measures to ensure reliable protection. Internet technologies and various software platforms not only simplified the possibilities of communication but also made the online search for information about other people easier. Many intimate secrets of personal life can become easily accessible.
The European approach to the protection of privacy (most widely adopted by Russian legislators and law enforcement agencies) examines it through the lens of the individual’s dignity, maintains reasonable expectations of privacy and most accurately reflects the realities of the digital age. The scale of the problem requires the timely reaction of legislators by constant introduction of changes to the existing legal regulation and systematical update of legislation that can quickly and effectively protect the privacy and personal data of an individual. Judges should adopt a modern approach to what constitutes a reasonable expectation of confidentiality in the context of digital communication and online communities.
A reliable level of protection implies exploring the experience of international justice bodies such as the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of the European Union, national constitutional and supreme courts, correlating own approaches with theirs, and developing practices — especially in the sphere of ensuring a balance between privacy protection and the need to strengthen national security and the prevention and detection of crime.

Keywords
human rights, privacy, technology, integrity, personal data, confidentiality, protection.

For citation
Hajiyev Kh. I. Privacy Protection in the Digital Age. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 6, pp. 5—20. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.1

References

Amsterdam A. G. Perspectives on the Fourth Amendment. Minnesota Law Review, 1974, vol. 58, 349 p.

Bu-Pasha Sh. Cross-border issues under EU data protection law with regards to personal data protection. Information and Communications Technology Law, 2017, vol. 26, pp. 213—228.

Cooley T. M. A Treatise on the Law of Torts. Chicago, Callaghan, 1888. 839 p.

De Hert P. Belgium, Courts, Privacy and Data Protection: An inventory of Belgian case law from the pre-GDPR regime (1995—2015). Brussels Privacy HUB: Working Paper, 2019, vol. 5, no. 14, 34 p.

De Hingh A. E. Some Reflections on Dignity as an Alternative legal Concept in Data Protection Regulation. German Law Journal, 2018, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1269—1290.

Fazekas Ch. P. 1984 Is Still Fiction: Electronic Monitoring in the Workplace and U. S. Privacy Law. Duke Law and Technology Review, 2004, no. 15, pp. 1—16.

Gellert R., Gutwirth S. The Legal Construction of Privacy and Data Protection. Computer Law and Security Review, 2013, vol. 29, pp. 1—16.

Kesan J. P. Cyber-working or Cyber-shirking?: a First Principles Examination of Electronic Privacy in the Workplace. Florida Law Review, 2002, vol. 54, pp. 1—27.

Khabrieva T. Y., Chernogor N. N. The Law in the Conditions of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 85—102. (In Russ.)

Lasprogata G., King N., Pillay S. Regulation of Electronic Employee Monitoring: Identifying Fundamental Principles of Employee Privacy Through a Comparative Study of Data Privacy Legislation in the E. U., U. S. and Canada. Stanford Technology Law Review, 2004, no. 4, pp. 1—46.

Michael A. Smyth v. The Pillsbury Company, 914 F.Supp. 97. E. D. Pa. 1996. Available at: https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/districtcourts/FSupp/914/97/2131293/.

Pfisterer V. M. The Right to Privacy — A Fundamental Right in Search of Its Identity: Uncovering the CJ EU’s Flawed Concept of the Right to Privacy. German Law Journal, 2019, vol. 20, iss. 5, pp. 722—733.

Pollicino O., De Gregorio G. Privacy or Transparency? A New Balancing of Interests for the “Right to be Forgotten” of Personal Data Published in Public Registers. The Italian Law Journal, 2017, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1—22.

Price M. W. Rethinking Privacy: Fourth Amendment “Papers” and the Third — Party Doctrine. Journal of National Security Law and Policy, 2016, vol. 8.

Strömholm S.Right of Privacy and Rights of the Personality: A Comparative Survey. Stockholm, 1967, pp. 247—299.

Talapina E. V. Law and Digitalization: New Challenges and Prospects. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 2, pp. 5—17. (In Russ.)

The Right to Respect for Private Life: Digital Challenges, a Comparative-Law Perspective — The United Kingdom. EPRS: European Parliamentary Research Service, 2018, October, pp. 1—35.

Thompson M. French constitutional court leaves GDPR bill largely intach. Global Data Review, 2018, 18 June. Available at: https://globaldatareview.com/.

Vainio N., Miettinen S. Telecommunications Data Retention after Digital Rights Ireland: Legislative and Judicial Reactions in the Member States. International Journal of Law and Information Technology, 2015, vol. 23, iss. 3, pp. 290—309.

Vanoni L. P. Balancing Privacy and National Security in the Global Digital Era: A Comparative Perspective of EU and US Constitutional Systems. The Fragmented Landscape of Fundamental Rights Protection in Europe: the Role of Judicial and Non-judicial Actors. Ed. by L. Violini, A. Baraggia. Northampton, 2018. 256 p.

Warren S. D., Brandeis L. D. The Right to Privacy. Harvard Law Review, 1890, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 193—220.

Whitman J. Q. The Two Western Cultures of Privacy: Dignity Versus Liberty. Yale Law Journal, 2004, vol. 113, no. 6, pp. 1—73.

Zorkin V. D. Law in the digital world. Marginal thinking St. Petersburg International Law Forum. Rossiyskaya gazeta, 2018, May 29. (In Russ.)

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■ ADMINISTRATIVE LAW. FINANCIAL LAW. INFORMATION LAW

Towards the Question of the Legal Nature of Cryptocurrencies in Germany  Pdf 16

Pechegin D. A.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: crim5@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.2

Abstract
On the basis of the report of the European Central Bank (ECB) 2012 the European Court in the case of Skatteverket v. David Hedqvist (Case C-264/14) came to the conclusion that virtual currency can be defined as the species (type) unresolved in the law of electronic money, which are issued and controlled by their developers and accepted by users for such a specific virtual system. Such virtual currencies are similar (similar) to official convertible currencies, which confirms the practice of their respective use. However, virtual currencies differ from e-money in so far as virtual currencies are not represented in traditional units of account, such as the Euro, but in virtual units of account. In 2015 the ECB proposed a new definition of virtual currency as a digital representation of value, not issued by a Central Bank or credit institution, which in some cases can be used as an alternative to money. The independent definition of cryptocurrency was also proposed by FATF, as well as a number of other organizations, including at the international level. However, despite all the attempts made, this problem has not yet found a universal solution at the international level. In turn, countries including those that are part of the European Union, seek to develop authentic regulation of the cryptosphere in order to attract investment flows. The experience of Germany in comparison with other jurisdictions demonstrates a progressive approach to determining the legal nature of cryptocurrencies.
The purpose of the study is to conduct a brief comparative analysis of the German approach to the regulation of cryptocurrencies at the legislative level, which involves the solution of a number of problems related to the identification of the specifics of this approach, taking into account the complex of international acts.
The article uses the system and comparative legal methods. Synthesis of generalizing the characteristics of the solution of the problem of the regulation of cryptosphere in Germany in the future will allow to predict and to use such data for the purposes of improvement of domestic legislation.
The results of the analysis were generalizing conclusions concerning the definition of the distinctive features of the German approach to the regulation of the cryptosphere. According to the author virtual currencies are similar (similar) to official convertible currencies, which confirms the practice of their respective use. However virtual currencies differ from e-money in so far as they are represented not in traditional units of account, such as Euros, but in virtual units of account. The experience of Germany proves that the definition of the legal nature of cryptocurrencies is possible through the prism of regulation of a new institution — the equivalent of money.

Keywords
cryptocurrency, currency regulation, money substitute, surrogates, criminal law, cryptosphere, Germany.

For citation
Pechegin D. A. Towards the Question of the Legal Nature of Cryptocurrencies in Germany. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 6, pp. 21—33. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.2

References

Brenig C., Accorsi R., Müller G. Economic Analysis of Cryptocurrency Backed Money Laundering. ECIS Completed Research Papers. 2015. Paper 20. Available at: https://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2015_cr/20/.

Digital currency: breakthroughs in research and practice. Ed by Mehdi Khosrow-Pour et al. USA, Information Resources Management Association. 2018. 341 p.

Grzywotz J., Köhler O., Rückert C. Cybercrime mit Bitcoins — Straftaten mit virtuellen Währungen, deren Verfolgung und Prävention. Strafverteidiger, 2016, no. 11, pp. 753—759.

Harari Y. N. Sapiens: a brief history of humankind. Penguin Random House. London, 2014. 443 p.

Institutions of Financial Security. Ed. by I. I. Kucherov, N. A. Povetkina. Moscow, 2017. 246 p. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y., Chernogor N. N. The Law in the Conditions of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 85—102. (In Russ.)

Kucherov I. I. Cryptocurrency: ideas of legal identification and legitimization of alternative means of payment. Moscow, 2018. 204 p. (In Russ.)

Kucherov I. I. Elements of the Financial Security and its Legal Support. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2017, no. 6, pp. 69—79. (In Russ.)

Kudratov M., Pechegin D. A., Trefilov A. A. Cross-sectoral nature of the category “damage” and actual problems of interrelation of civil, criminal, criminal procedural, arbitration and budgetary legislation of the Russian Federation. Russian journal of legal sciences, 2018, no. 2, pp. 131—138. (In Russ.)

Lunts L. A. Money and liabilities in civil law. Moscow, 2004. 350 p. (In Russ.)

Meisner H. Bitcoins als Herausforderung in der Finanzsphäre. Die Zukunft des Bargelds: Perspektiven aus Wissenschaft und Praxis. Ed. by J. Lempp, T. Pitz, J. Sickmann. Kleve: Springer Gabler, 2018, pp. 89—102.

Omlor S. Blockchain-basierte Zahlungsmittel. ZRP — Zeitschrift für Rechtspolitik, 2018, Rn. 85-89.

Pashentsev D. A. Russian Legislative Tradition before the Challenge of Digitalization. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 2, pp. 5—13. (In Russ.)

Povetkina N. A. The Legal Form of the Information Systems’ and Information Technologies’ Integration in the Sphere of Public Finance. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 5, pp. 96—112. (In Russ.)

Povetkina N. A., Ledneva Y. V. Fintekh and Redtekh: Boundaries of Legal Regulation. Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki = Law. Journal of the Higher School of Economics, 2018, no. 2, pp. 46—67. (In Russ.)

Schlund A., Pongratz H. Distributed-Ledger-Technologie und Kryptowährungen — eine rechtliche Betrachtung. DStR, 2018, pp. 599—600.

Seaford R. Money And The Early Greek Mind: Homer, philosophy, tragedy. Cambridge, 2004. 370 p.

Sidorenko E. L. The legal status of cryptocurrencies in the Russian Federation. Economics, taxes & law, 2018, no. 2, pp. 129—137. (In Russ.)

Sigmund O. A. Cyber-and Internet crime in Germany and Russia: possibilities of comparative research. Legal science and law enforcement practice, 2015, no. 4(34), pp. 180—188. (In Russ.)

Stepanov O. A., Pechegin D. A. Legal view on the introduction of new technologies. Russian Law Journal, 2018, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 149—171.

Wegberg R., Oerlemans J., Deventer O. Bitcoin money laundering: mixed results?: An explorative study on money laundering of cybercrime proceeds using bitcoin. Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 25, iss. 2, pp. 419—435.

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■ CIVIL LAW. ENTREPRENEURIAL LAW. FAMILY LAW. PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

Insurance Exclusions Contrary to the Requirement of Fair Business Practice: Perspectives for Protection of Policyholder’s Rights in Russia and Estonia as a Member of the European Union  Pdf 16

Kratenko M. V., Luik O.-J.

M. V. KRATENKO, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk 660041, Russian Federation
E-mail: maxkrat@yandex.ru

Olavi-Juri LUIK, University of Tartu, Tartu 50090, Estonia
E-mail: olavi@lextal.ee

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.3

Abstract
The subject of the study is the terms of an insurance contract, fully or partially excluding the payment of insurance benefit in certain circumstances (insurance exclusions, exclusion clauses). Authors research the reasons why such provisions are included in insurance contract and standard insurance rules (general terms). It is proposed to distinguish two main groups of exclusions: 1) classic or “pure” exclusion clauses, relating to the scope of insurance cover (the object of insurance, insured risks), 2) exceptions, implying an assessment of the careless behavior of the policyholder (discharge clauses). With regard to the first group of exclusions it is concluded that judicial control over their content is possible if they have not been individually negotiated with consumer and have not been taken into account in calculation of insurance premiums. The second group of exclusions is actually sanctions for violation of contractual duties. The application of such sanctions must depend on the fault of policyholder (intent or gross negligence) and causation link between the breach of duty and the materialization of risk.
Authors also do comparative analysis of the legislation of Russia and Estonia, as a member of the European Union, on the questions about protection of consumer’s right in insurance contracts, as well as the case law. It is established that the Law of Obligation Act (Estonia) contains special provisions protecting the policyholder from unfair terms in standard contract, including unfair insurance exclusions. This provisions, based on the European Union Directive 93/13/EEC, provides a high level of protection of the rights of policyholders: the protection applies to all policyholders who enter into insurance contract against mass risks (as opposed to insurance of large risks); in addition, the control of standard terms, which the court applies regardless of the requirements of the parties, is being expanded. In Russian law there are also rules aimed at preventing the practice of imposing unfair terms in consumer contract: the provisions of p. 2 art. 16 of the Consumer Protection Act, art. 428 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. However, the application of these rules does not provide effective protection for consumers of insurance services, since all types of exclusions (“non-insured events”) are qualified by the courts as relating to the main subject of insurance contract and not contradicting the provisions of art. 421 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (“Freedom of contract”).
Based on the results of the study authors formulated a number of proposals to strengthen the protection of consumer’s rights in an insurance contract: to supplement the Russian insurance legislation with provisions, imposing on the insurer the duty to negotiate individually all the exceptions from cover, not provided by law; to form an indicative list of burdensome (unfair) terms in consumer insurance contract.

Keywords
risk, insurance exclusions, discharge clauses, general terms, duty to inform.

For citation
Kratenko M. V., Luik O.-J. Insurance Exclusions Contrary to the Requirement of Fair Business Practice: Perspectives for Protection of Policyholder’s Rights in Russia and Estonia as a Member of the European Union. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 6, pp. 34—50. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.3

References

Arkhipova A. G. Judicial Interference in Insurance Contracts. Vestnik ekonomicheskogo pravosudiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2017, no. 9, pp. 138—162. (In Russ.)

Basedow J., Birds J., Clarke M. et al. (eds.) Principles of European Insurance Contract Law (PEICL). 2nd ed. Köln, 2016.

Baturova E. A. Legal features of unilateral refusal to perform obligation (refusal to pay benefit) in life-insurance contract. Aktual’nye problemy rossiyskogo prava, 2013, no. 6, pp. 722—727. (In Russ.)

Boggs C. J. Six Reasons the Loss is Excluded. Available at: https://www.mynewmarkets.com/articles/99788/six-reasons-the-loss-isexcluded (accessed 01.03.2019).

Brand O. Requirement regarding the transparency of standard terms. Istanbul, 2012.

Casco insurance: General conditions Salva Kindlustus. Available at: https://www.salva.ee/sites/default/files/insurance/terms/skt-13.11_ru_alates_01.11.13_2_0.pdf (accessed 29.05.2019). (In Russ.)

Fogel’son Yu. B. Insurance law: theoretical basis and application. Moscow, 2012. 574 p. (In Russ.)

Fogel’son Yu. B. Protection against unfair contract terms in Russian legal practice. Vestnik ekonomicheskogo pravosudiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2018, no. 10, pp. 163—179. (In Russ.)

Ginter C. Standard Terms in the Law of Obligations Act and Directive 93/13/ECC. Juridica Abstract, 2001, no. 7, pp. 501—513.

Kratenko M. V. Increase of Insured Risk Within the Insurance Contract Period: Legal Consequences (Comparative Legal Research). Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2019, no. 5, pp. 67—79 (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/art_2019_5_6

Markesinis B., Unberath H., Johnston A. The German Law of Contract. A Comprative Treatise. 2nd ed. Oxford; Portland, 2006.

Nebbia P. Unfair Contract Terms in European Law: A Study in Comparative and EC Law. Hart, 2007.

Nina Adelmann. Unfair Terms in Insurance Contracts. ERA Forum (2008) 9: S134. Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12027-008-0075-2 (accessed 03.03.2019).

Rühl G. Precautionary Obligations (Insurance Contracts). Encyclopedia of European Private Law. Oxford, 2012/3.

Simon S. I. The Dilemma of War and Military Exclusion Clauses in Insurance Contracts. 19 Am. Bus. L. J. 31 (1981—1982).

Thoyts R. Insurance Theory and Practice. London, 2010.

Varul P., Kull I., Kove V., Kaerdi M. Law of Obligation Act II (§ 208—618). Commented Edition. Tallinn, 2007. 757 p.

Wenhao Han. China: Developments in Insurance Law and Regulation in the People´s Republic. Research Handbook on International Insurance Law and Regulation. Ed. by J. Burling, J. M. Burling, K. Lazarus. Lloyds, 2011.

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Qualification of Agreement with the Obligation to Achieve an Immaterial Result on the Example of Energy-Service Agreement  Pdf 16

Minskaya M. M.

Moscow School of Social and Economic Sciences, Moscow 119571, Russian Federation
E-mail: mariaminskaya@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.4

Abstract
Traditionally in Russian law the contracts with obligations are considered either as obligations to perform work, or as obligations to provide services. The criterion that determines to choose one of these two models is an emphasis on the process or on the result. The result in the construction contract is considered as an item. If the contractor’s obligations are not aimed at a material result, then the relations of the parties are governed by the service agreement. The qualification of the contract is uncertain, as achieving the intangible result is the only criterion for the fulfillment of an obligation. This qualification ambiguity is a key issue for an energy-service contract.
The goal of this research is to qualify the energy-service contract and determine the range of applicable rules in Russian law.
To achieve the stated goal, the author analyzes the provisions of foreign laws and acts of international unification of law, as well as modern judicial practice. The author uses general scientific and private scientific methods of cognition, including comparative legal and historical methods to prepare this research.
The author comes to the following conclusions. The energy-service contract in Russian law cannot be regarded solely as a service contract or as a construction contract. By inertia, the Russian judicial practice is forced to make a choice between the specified contractual models, which significantly impairs the freedom of the parties of the energy service contract. It seems that even the recognition of an energy-service contract as a mixed one does not guarantee the priority of contractual terms over the mandatory rules of contractual types. When regulating the relations of the parties to the energy service contract, the author proposes to focus on the specifics of long-term contracts, as reflected in the UNIDROIT Principles 2016.

Keywords
energy-service contract, obligation to make efforts, obligation to achieve result, long-term contract.

For citation
Minskaya M. M. Qualification of Agreement with the Obligation to Achieve an Immaterial Result on the Example of Energy-Service Agreement. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 6, pp. 51—62. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.4

References

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Belov V. A. Civil law. Vol. 2. Moscow, 2016. 453 p. (In Russ.)

Bleyl-Androschin J. W., Ungerböck R. What is Energy Contracting (ESCo services)? 2009. Available at: http://www.ieadsm.org/task/task-16-innovative-energy-services-energy-contracting-esco-services.

Burchakova A. A. The development of the energy service mechanism as a direction for increasing energy efficiency. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2016. 202 p. (In Russ.)

Civil law. Ed. by A. P. Sergeev. Vol. 2. Moscow, 2017. 848 p. (In Russ.)

Civil law. Ed. by B. M. Gongalo. Vol. 2. Moscow, 2016. 543 p. (In Russ.)

Contract and law of obligations (general part): article-by-article commentary on Articles 307—453 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Ed. by A. G. Karapetov. Moscow, 2017. 1120 p. (In Russ.)

Creation and operation of energy service companies and performance contracts in Russia. Vol. 1: Energy service and performance contracts: opportunities and challenges for their implementation in Russia. Ed. by I. G. Gritsevich. Moscow, 2011. 109 p. (In Russ.)

Dorokhov A. I., Ignat’ev O. V. Long-term contracts in the context of the unidroit principles: a new perspective on the problem. Zakon, 2018, no. 4, pp. 148—161. (In Russ.)

Hansen Sh. J., Langlois P., Bertoldi P. World ESCO Outlook, The Fairmont Press, Inc., 2012.

Ishchenko I. A., Zemtsov A. A. Energoservice contract as a new type of investment agreements. Problemy ucheta i finansov, 2012, no. 3(7), pp. 7—9. (In Russ.)

Karapetov A. G. Conditional rights and obligations: a review of problematic issues of the application of Art. Art. 157 and 327.1 of the Russian Civil Code. Vestnik ekonomicheskogo pravosudiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2017, no. 6, pp. 71—128. (In Russ.)

Karapetov A. G. To the question of reducing the fee for the cancellation of the contract. Commentary on the determination of the Judicial Board on Economic Disputes of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of 28.06.2017 no. 309-ES17-1058. Vestnik ekonomicheskogo pravosudiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2017, no. 8, pp. 10—21. (In Russ.)

Karapetov A. G., Savel’ev A. I. Freedom of contract and its limits. Moscow, 2012. Vol. 2. 453 p. (In Russ.)

Matiyashchuk S. V. The system of contractual relations in electricity and heat supply in the conditions of development of cogeneration. Dr. diss. St. Petersburg, 2012. 407 p. (In Russ.)

Matveeva E. Yu. Legal regulation of energy service contracts in the field of procurement for state and municipal needs. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2016. 217 p. (In Russ.)

Principles, Definitions and Model Rules of European Private Law. Draft Common Frame of reference. Ed. by N. Yu. Rasskazova. Moscow, 2013. 989 p. (In Russ.)

Robertson D. Symposium Paper: Long-Term Relational Contracts and the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts, 17 Austl. Int’l L. J. 185 (2010).

Stepanov D. I. Services as an object of civil rights. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2004. 315 p. (In Russ.)

Tulikov A. V. Legal aspects of energy service activities. Energosberezhenie, 2012, no. 1, pp. 10—15. (In Russ.)

Vasil’chenko A. I. Energy Service Contract. Cand. diss. St. Petersburg, 2015. 147 p. (In Russ.)

Yanson S. Yu. Providing energy savings in the military budget sector through the development of the institute of energy service contracts. Pravo v Vooruzhennykh Silakh, 2015, no. 8, pp. 100—106. (In Russ.)

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Regulation of Electronic Commerce in Africa: Current State (in French)  Pdf 16

Massala Diluka F.

State Enterprise Reform Steering Committee of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
E-mail: Frederick_massala@hotmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.5

Abstract
E-commerce is a reality in Africa and affects business environment of the continent. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) notes that Africa remains the region with the lowest prevalence of e-commerce. With the development and use of information and communication technologies, in particular mobile telephony and cloud technology, e-commerce can become widespread in Africa in the near future. E-commerce represents tremendous potential for developing economies, employment and entrepreneurial opportunities for Africa. 
In its current state, the African regulatory framework for electronic commerce has not yet been adapted to this evolution. And yet, concluding contracts for the sale of goods and services online is gradually spreading throughout the African continent. In the context of this new reality it is necessary to recommend African states to take the necessary measures on the basis of creating a regulatory framework to ensure the security of entities involved in the e-commerce sector, since e-commerce raises specific regulatory issues.
The article reveals the current status of the African regulatory framework in the field of electronic commerce. It is noted that e-commerce is regulated both at the state level and at the level of African regional organizations. Among these regional organizations, the African Union, in the framework of the Summit of Heads of State, adopted in 2014 the so-called Malabo Convention, which provides for provisions related to cybersecurity and the protection of personal data. This Convention, which also applies to e-commerce, although it has not yet entered into force, remains the most important document for e-commerce regulation at the continental level. This indicates the improvement of regulation.

Keywords
e-commerce, cybersecurity, personal data protection, African Union, regional organizations, conventions, digital signature, ensuring the authenticity of electronic transactions, electronic commerce in Africa.

For citation
Massala Diluka F. Regulation of Electronic Commerce in Africa: Current State. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 6, pp. 63—68. (In French). DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.5

References

Alain Ducass, Jean-Marc Kwadjane. Le commerce électronique en Afrique : Maroc, Tunisie, Sénégal et Côte d’Ivoire. Recommandations pour l’intégration régionale en Méditerranée, in Construire la Méditerranée, IPEMED, novembre 2015, Paris.

Note sur le commerce électronique en Afrique, Nations unies, Commission Economique pour l’Afrique. New York, 2018.

Rapport du Comité de la politique de l’information, de l’informatique et des communications : Mesurer le commerce électronique, OCDE. Paris, 1997.

Loi n° 18-05 du 24 Chaâbane 1439 correspondant au 18 mai 2018 relative au commerce électronique. Journal officiel de la République Algérienne, n° 28.

Principes régissant la protection des consommateurs dans le commerce électronique, Groupe de Travail Canadien sur la Consommation et Commerce Electronique. Ottawa, 1999.

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Some Issues of Choosing Applicable Law in the Practice of Resolution of Foreign Economic Disputes  Pdf 16

Lazareva T. P., Shestakova M. P.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian
Federation
E-mail: pil@izak.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.6

Abstract
The reform of the legislation on arbitration courts in the Russian Federation, carried out in recent years, provides for strengthening the role of international arbitration in increasing the effectiveness of foreign economic relations.
The purpose of the research is to study the practice of arbitration courts in determining the applicable law to relations arising from cross-border contracts; identifying the approaches of the courts in resolving this problem in the aspect of using non-state sources of regulation in resolving disputes, as well as particular international agreements. The article aims to identify the main directions of improving the practice of resolving foreign trade disputes from the standpoint of harmonizing approaches to determining by the courts the law to be applied to international commercial contracts.
To achieve the goal and objectives of the research, comparative, technical, formal logical methods, the method of interpretation of law, as well as general scientific methods have been applied.
The article notes the increasing role of non-state sources in the regulation of cross-border relations. References to non-state sources, which regulate foreign economic relations — sets of uniform principles and rules of contract law, model general conditions, international trade customs, regulations, etc. — are more and more often found in cross-border contracts concluded by participants in international commercial transactions. In international arbitration practice, the recognition of the freedom of parties to choose the law applicable to their contract, including informal regulatory sources, is reflected in the regulations of leading international commercial arbitrations, as well as in the national legislation of various countries. At the same time, their application in practice now faces certain difficulties. Problems of application of international treaties in the resolution of foreign trade disputes are considered from the standpoint of determining in each specific case the scope of their action. As practice shows, this factor is not always taken into account when deciding whether to apply the UNIDROIT Convention on International Financial Leasing 1988 to the relationship of international financial leasing. It is not taken into account that, the scope of the Article 3 of the Convention is determined on the basis of construing “tripartite” relations by leasing participants, covering both the leasing agreement itself and the contract of sale relations associated with it. The author supports the position, according to which in cases where the sale contract of equipment to be leased is directly referred to the provisions of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 1980, based on the will of the parties. The article also raises the issue of the relation between the scope of the UNIDROIT Convention on International Financial Leasing 1988, the UNIDROIT Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment 2001 and the Convention of the CIS on Interstate Leasing 1998. According to the author, if the scope of international treaties coincide and they do not contain corresponding provisions on their delimitation, the special nature of the norms of the relevant convention should be taken into account. In particular, if the 1988 UNIDROIT Convention and the 1998 Convention on Interstate Leasing coincide, priority should be given to the latter, taking into account the participation in the Convention of the CIS countries and its focus on cooperation in the framework of the regional association.

Keywords
international commercial arbitration, Principles of International Commercial Contracts (UNIDROIT Principles), UNIDROIT Convention on International Financial Leasing, non-state sources of regulation, cross-border contracts, international sale and purchase, international financial leasing.

For citation
Lazareva T. P., Shestakova M. P. Some Issues of Choosing Applicable Law in the Practice of Resolution of Foreign Economic Disputes. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 6, pp. 69—83. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.6

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Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union as a System of Guarantees of the Foreign Investors’ Rights  Pdf 16

Yulov D. V.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: yulov.d@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.7

Abstract
For closer cooperation of neighboring states in the international investment legal guarantees for foreign investors along with universal multilateral investment agreements must also be contained in regional multilateral international investment agreements. Bilateral investment treaties contain various provisions on the timing of the compensation payment to a foreign investor, in the case of seizure of his property. Meanwhile, international investment treaties, national legislation as well as in contracts with a foreign investor should also contain certain terms of payment of compensation in cases of expropriation of property of foreign investor.
The article discusses the provisions of the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union governing international investment relations between EEU member states. It is pointed out that bilateral agreements on the promotion and mutual protection of investments, as well as national legislation and contracts concluded with a foreign investor, should establish a fixed period of payment of compensation to a foreign investor in the event of expropriation of his property, which should be predetermined. A predetermined period of payment of compensation to a foreign investor, which begins to flow from the date of expropriation, can be considered as a civil guarantee, creating predictability for foreign investors in international investment relations, which is an important factor contributing to the attraction of foreign investment by the state in the national economy. The national legislation on foreign investments of the EAEU member States defines the concept of «foreign investment» in different ways, which does not contribute to the harmonization of the legislation of these states.

Keywords
legal guarantees, investment activity, foreign investor, foreign investments, international investment agreements, national legislation, expropriation, property, compensation, guarantee system.

For citation
Yulov D. V. Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union as a System of Guarantees of the Foreign Investors’ Rights. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 6, pp. 84—94. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.7

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■ INTERNATIONAL AND INTEGRATION LAW. EUROPEAN LAW

Review of the Practice of the ECHR'S Grand Chamber: Case of Mihalache v. Romania, Case of Ilnseher v. Germany  Pdf 16

Dedov D. I., Hajiyev Kh. I.

D. I. DEDOV, European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg, France

Kh. I. HAJIYEV, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

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European Standards of Fair Trial: Modern Challenges  Pdf 16

Fokin E. A., Khabirova D. I.

E. A. FOKIN
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: evgeniy.hse@outlook.com

D. I. KHABIROVA
National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Moscow 101000, Russian Federation
E-mail: dania.khab@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.8

Abstract
The subject of this study is the current trends in the right to a fair trial in the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights. The authors strive to identify the main vectors and directions for the development of the Court’s approaches on the most pressing issues of applying Article 6 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
The study consists of several basic blocks. In the first block the authors give an evolution of the Court’s position regarding the right to a fair trial, while refusing to comment on specific elements of this right and seeking to consider Art. 6 of the Convention in terms of the main judicial doctrines of the ECHR. The second block examines the main trends in the criminal procedure aspect of the right to a fair trial, including the evolution of the court’s views on the right to defense, the right to question witnesses and the right to the services of an interpreter. The third and fourth parts of the work are devoted to the problems of implementation of the provisions of Art. 6 of the Convention and the case-law of the ECHR in Russian justice in civil and criminal matters. The authors make a cautious attempt to analyze the latest changes in the sphere of the judicial system and procedural legislation of Russia in terms of the Convention requirements and the main approaches of the Court. The chronic problems of the Russian criminal process are particularly emphasized from the point of view of the case-law of the ECHR, which, unfortunately, have not yet been resolved. The final part identifies further possible ways to implement the right to a fair trial in Russian justice in civil and criminal cases.

Keywords
right to a fair trial, standards of justice human rights, implementation.

For citation
Fokin E. A., Khabirova D. I. European Standards of Fair Trial: Modern Challenges. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 6, pp. 108—126. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.8

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■ PROCEDURAL LAW

Judicial Practice on Certain Categories of Cases in the Context of Legal Monitoring (On the Example of the Institute for the Protection of the Right to Trial Within a Reasonable Time)  Pdf 16

Belyakova A. V.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: belyakova.av@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.9

Abstract
The article discusses the problems of implementation of the protection of the right to legal proceedings within a reasonable time in the Russian procedural legislation on the basis of the analysis of international and domestic legal acts, legal positions of the European Court of Human Rights and law enforcement practice of courts of general jurisdiction and arbitration courts.
The aim of the article is to form scientifically-based conclusions and proposals to improve the existing domestic mechanism of protection of the right to legal proceedings within a reasonable time in the Russian Federation. The tasks are, comparative legal analysis of the current procedural legislation of the Russian Federation and the legislation of foreign States on the mechanism of protection of the right to legal proceedings within a reasonable time in national legal systems; analysis of the legal positions of the European court of human rights and the materials of judicial practice of national courts.
Research methods: dialectical, philosophical, formal-logical, system-structural, historical, formal-legal, comparative-legal, interpretation of law, expert evaluation, legal modeling and forecasting.
Proposals are formulated to improve the current mechanism of protection of the right to legal proceedings within a reasonable time in the Russian Federation.

Keywords
reasonable time of legal proceedings, legal monitoring, compensation for violation of the right to legal proceedings within a reasonable time, evaluation criteria, European court of human rights, judicial practice.

For citation
Belyakova A. V. Judicial Practice on Certain Categories of Cases in the Context of Legal Monitoring (On the Example of the Institute for the Protection of the Right to Trial Within a Reasonable Time). Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 6, pp. 127—141. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.6.9

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