Contents # 1/2020

■ LEGAL EVENTS

IX INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF COMPARATIVE LAW “LEGAL VALUES IN THE FOCUS OF COMPARATIVE LAW"  Pdf 16

Welcome Words by G. Buquicchio, V. I. Matvienko, S. V. Lavrov, T. N. Moskalkova

Adobe pdf 24  Download

Crisis of Values, Crisis of Democracy  Pdf 16

Mathieu B.

Speech by member of the State Counsil of France on extraordinary service, professor at the University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, member of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission of the Council of Europe), vice president of the International Association of Constitutional Law, foreign member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Bertrand Mathieu at the Plenary Session of the IX International Congress of Comparative Law “Legal Values in the Focus of Comparative Law“ (Moscow, December 2, 2019).

Adobe pdf 24  Download

European Ethical Charter on the Use of Artificial Intelligence in Judicial Systems: Value Guidelines  Pdf 16

Gurbanov R. A. ogly

Speech by President of the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ) Ramin Gurbanov at the Plenary Session of the IX International Congress of Comparative Law “Legal Values in the Focus of Comparative Law“ (Moscow, December 2, 2019).

 

Adobe pdf 24  Download

Universal Nature of the Manifestation of Constitutional Values: Conceptual Approaches  Pdf 16

Harutyunyan G. G.

Speech by member of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission of the Council of Europe) Gagik Harutyunyan at the Plenary Session of the IX International Congress of Comparative Law “Legal Values in the Focus of Comparative Law“ (Moscow, December 2, 2019).

Adobe pdf 24  Download

Axiological Aspects of the Convergence of English and European Continental Law  Pdf 16

Rogov I. I.

Speech by deputy executive director of the Foundation of the first President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, member of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission of the Council of Europe) Igor Rogov at the Plenary Session of the IX International Congress of Comparative Law “Legal Values in the Focus of Comparative Law“ (Moscow, December 2, 2019).

Adobe pdf 24  Download

Eurasian Integration: Common Values and Legal Institutions  Pdf 16

Neshataeva T. N.

Speech by judge of the Court of the Eurasian Economic Union Tatyana Neshataeva at the Plenary Session of the IX International Congress of Comparative Law “Legal Values in the Focus of Comparative Law“ (Moscow, December 2, 2019).

Adobe pdf 24  Download

The Role of the Opposition in a Democratic Parliament — How to Find a Balance Between Effective Government and the Tyranny of the Majority  Pdf 16

Dikov G. V.

Speech by lawyer of the Department of democratic institutions and human rights of the Secretariat of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission of the Council of Europe) Grigory Dikov at the Plenary Session of the IX International Congress of Comparative Law “Legal Values in the Focus of Comparative Law“ (Moscow, December 2, 2019).

Adobe pdf 24  Download

Legal Values in the Focus of Comparative Law (a Review of the IX International Congress of Comparative Law)  Pdf 16

Kovler A. I., Ibragimova Yu. E.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

This article provides a review of the IX International Congress of Comparative Law “Legal Values in the Focus of Comparative Law“ (Moscow, December 2, 2019).

Adobe pdf 24  Download

NATIONAL LEGAL FORUM (LEGAL TECH)

Review of the National Legal Forum (Legal Tech) "The Role of Information and Communication Technologies in Strengthening the Rule of Law in Kyrgyzstan”  Pdf 16

Otorova B. K.

Balasagyn Kyrgyz National University, Bishkek 720033, Kyrgyz Republic

This article provides a review of the National Legal Forum (Legal Tech) "The Role of Information and Communication Technologies in Strengthening the Rule of Law in Kyrgyzstan” (Bishkek, June 26, 2019).

Adobe pdf 24  Download

■ INTERNATIONAL AND INTEGRATION LAW. EUROPEAN LAW

Review of the Practice of the European Court of Human Rights: Case of Tanase v. Romania, Case of Ribalda and Others v. Spain  Pdf 16

Dedov D. I., Hajiyev Kh. I.

D. I. DEDOV, European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg, France

Kh. I. HAJIYEV, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

Adobe pdf 24  Download

Constitutional Approach to the Doctrine of Subsidiarity in International Law  Pdf 16

Gracheva S. A.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: sinobi_unit@mail.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.001

Abstract
The article examines the topic of subsidiarity, which is subject of an increasing attention being a principle or doctrine of developing relations on an interstate (supranational) basis. However, it is often considered through its traditional “constitutional” assessment concerning the issue of public authority. It is proposed to identify subsidiarity in international law in connection with its “federalist” significance for the purposes of regional integration (based on the experience of the European Union) (competency doctrine); taking into account the recognition, almost universally, of the exhaustion of national remedies before applying to international authorities (the doctrine on the method of procedural interconnection of institutes for the protection of rights). In both cases, the effectiveness of subsidiarity has become largely determined by its judicial context (interpretation). The problem of subsidiarity is "originally" developed in connection with the experience of the European Court of Human Rights — its normative adoption is not only a legally-moderate continuation of the discourse on the "non-interference" of the supranational court, "state sovereignty and human rights". Also it is an indicator of the current stage of inter-level interaction on basis of the law of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, which is sometimes considered constitutional. At the same time, the topic of a strict or extensive interpretation of subsidiarity in the procedural meaning retains its current interest.
It is substantiated that the interest in subsidiarity in international law as a whole corresponds to the modern trends of its development (in the context of its fragmentation, judicial multiplication of legal universals), however, the attention to this doctrine does not, as expected, fits into the classic ideas of international law and its principles. At the same time, its consideration is possible based on ideas about the constitutionalisation of international law (internationalization of constitutional law). Such ideas, although initially (we believe erroneously) are considered from the position of a “normative” logic of relations. Nevertheless, they rather suggest a departure from it in favor of a dynamic inter-level relationship and a search for a balance based on the values of law that have received sufficient universalization.

Keywords
subsidiarity, international law, constitutionalisation, inter-level interaction, legal order, exhaustion of local remedies, Court of Justice of the European Union, European Court of Human Rights, judicial dialogue.

For citation
Gracheva S. A. Constitutional Approach to the Doctrine of Subsidiarity in International Law. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 52—73. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.001 (In Russ.)

References

Andrichenko L. V., Yurtaeva E. A. Constitutional Foundations of the Russian Federalism. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2013, no. 6, pp. 5—16. (In Russ.)

Anisimova N. V. The principle of subsidiarity in European law: problems and prospects of application. Moscow, 2005. 50 p. (In Russ.)

Avtonomov A. S. The principle of subsidiarity and Russian federalism. Perspektivy federalizma v Rossii: teoreticheskie i prakticheskie aspekty. Kazan', 2001. Pp. 79—85. (In Russ.)

Ban'kovskiy A. E. Constitutional principles of unity and subsidiarity in the organization of state power in the Russian Federation. Barnaul, 2016. 159 p. (In Russ.)

Bjorge E. Been There, Done That: The Margin of Appreciation and International Law. Journal Cambridge International Law, 2015, vol. 4, iss. 1.

Bol'shakov S. N. The principle of subsidiarity in modern democratic governance: conceptual approaches and problems of practical implementation. Dr. diss. St. Petersburg, 2006. (In Russ.)

Carozza P. G. Subsidiarity as a Structural Principle of International Human Rights Law. American Journal of International Law, 2003, vol. 97, iss. 38.

Cassese S. Ruling indirectly. Judicial subsidiarity in the ECtHR. Available at: https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Speech_20150130_Seminar_Cassese_ENG.pdf.

D'Ascoli S., Scherr K. M. The Rule of Prior Exhaustion of Local Remedies in the International Law Doctrine and its Application in the Specific Context of Human Rights Protection. EUI Working Paper Law. No. 2007/02.

De Sal'via M. Enforcement of the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights. Legal nature of State obligations and European control of the national legislation. Prava cheloveka. Praktika Evropeyskogo suda po pravam cheloveka, 2006, no. 1, pp. 48—56. (In Russ.)

Entin M. L., Entina E. G. The Impact of Human rights Law on the progressive development of Contemporary International Law. Part I. Moskovskiy zhurnal mezhdunarodnogo prava, 2017, no. 2, pp. 30—44. (In Russ.)

European Integration: Legal Issues. Book 1. Ed. by B. N. Topornin, A. I. Kovler, M. M. Slavin, I. S. Krylova. Moscow, 1992. 123 p. (In Russ.)

Evans M. The Principle of Subsidiarity in European Law: Some comparison with Catholic Social Teaching. Solidarity: The Journal of Catholic Social Thought and Secular Ethics, 2003, vol. 3. Available at: https://philpapers.org/archive/EVATPO-20.pdf.

Filatova M. A. Relationship between Constitutional and Supranational Law: Ways to Resolve the Conflict (Example of European Union and National Legal Systems in EU Member States). Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie, 2013, no. 4, pp. 94—106. (In Russ.)

Follesdal A. Subsidiarity to the Rescue for the European Courts? Resolving Tensions between the Margin of Appreciation and Human Rights Protection. Available at: http://www.follesdal.net/ms/Follesdal-2016-subsidiarity-rescue.pdf.

Follesdal A. The Principle of Subsidiarity as a Constitutional Principle in International Law: The case of the EU and the European Convention on Human Rights. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/db0b/190160b1c3690335d40423118a3e82f8201b.pdf.

Follesdal A. The Principle of Subsidiarity as a Constitutional Principle in International Law. Available at: http://jeanmonnetprogram.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/JMWP12Follesdal.pdf.

Gadzhiev Kh. I. Legal doctrines promoting the effectiveness of the implementation of the Convention on Human Rights in the national legal order. Implementation of the Judgments of the European Court of Human Rights: concepts, legal approaches and practice. Ed. by V. V. Lazarev. Moscow, 2019. Pp. 89—114. (In Russ.)

Grevi D. Beyond the principle of separation of competences: the application of the principle of subsidiarity. Kazanskiy federalist. Federalizm v Rossii i Germanii, 2003, no. 1, pp. 90—107. (In Russ.)

Habermas J. The Theory of Communicative Action. Vol. 1: Reason and the Rationalization of Society; Vol. 2: Lifeworld and System: A Critique of Functionalist Reason. Boston, 1984.

Iglesias Vila M. Subsidiarity, margin of appreciation and international adjudication within a cooperative conception of human rights. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 2017, vol. 15, iss. 2. Available at: https://academic.oup.com/icon/article/15/2/393/3917610.

Ispolinov A. S. Is this their last and decisive battle? Constitutional Courts of Europe versus European International Courts. Available at: https://zakon.ru/blog/2017/2/20/eto_est_ih_poslednij_i_reshitelnyj_boj_konstitucionnye_sudy_evropy_protiv_evropejskih_mezhdunarodnyh. (In Russ.)

Ispolinov A. S. Judicial activism and judicial rule-making of the Court of justice of the European union. Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie, 2016, no. 1, pp. 81—94. (In Russ.)

Kapustin A. Ya. The problem of Universality of International law and the International community. The National and the universal in Law: From Traditions to Postmodernism: materials of the VII International Congress of Comparative Law (Moscow, December 1—2, 2017). Moscow, 2018. Pp. 37—55. (In Russ.)

Kapustin A. Ya. European Union: Integration and Law. Moscow, 2000. 436 p. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. The Stages and Main Directions of Constitutionalization Of the Modern Russian Legislation. Zhurnal konstitutsionnogo pravosudiya, 2013, no. 6, pp. 25—30. (In Russ.)

Kharris D., O'Boyl M., Uorbrik K. Law of the European Convention on Human Rights. 2nd ed. Moscow, 2018. Pp. 3—43. (In Russ.)

Klemin A. V. Law of the WTO, EU, EAEU. Concept, sources, legal capacity. 2nd ed. Kazan', 2016. 416 p. (In Russ.)

Kovler A. I. European Convention — a unique instrument of the International System of Human Rights Protection. Prava cheloveka. Praktika Evropeyskogo suda po pravam cheloveka, 2018, no. 6, pp. 6—13. (In Russ.)

Kovler A. I. European Convention in the International System of Human Rights Protection. Moscow, 2019. 304 p. (In Russ.)

Kovler A. I. European integration: a federalist project: a historical and legal essay. Moscow, 2016. 216 p. (In Russ.)

Kovler A., Fokin E., Cherenkova V. Bodies of international justice in the integration systems of the modern world. Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie, 2019, no. 2, pp. 44—61. (In Russ.)

Krasikov D. V., Lipkina N. N. Interaction between international and domestic human rights law in the context of the principle of subsidiarity. Saratov, 2014. 188 p. (In Russ.)

Krylova I. S. Is the European Union transforming into a federal state? Federalism: theory, institutions, relations (a comparative-legal research). Ed. by B. N. Topornin. Moscow, 2001. Pp. 335—368. (In Russ.)

Kunz R. A Further “Constitutionalization” to the Detriment of the Individual? On the ECtHR's Stricter Reading of the Principle of Subsidiarity Regarding the Admissibility of Cases. Available at: https://voelkerrechtsblog.org/a-further-constitutionalization-to-thedetriment-of-the-individual/.

Legal personality: the collection of materials for the XII Annual Scientific Readings in memoriam of Professor S. N. Bratus. Moscow, 2017. Pp. 69—99. (In Russ.)

Levin I. D. Sovereignty. Moscow, 1948. 375 p. (In Russ.)

Lipkina N. N. The principle of subsidiarity within the system of securing of the rights and freedoms established by the convention for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms 1950: material aspect. Vestnik Saratovskoy gosudarstvennoy yuridicheskoy akademii, 2014, no. 5, pp. 101—106. (In Russ.)

Lukashevich V. European consensus in practice of the European Court of Human Rights: institutional and interpretative aspects. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, 2009, no. 4, pp. 55— 62 (In Russ.)

Lukashuk I. I. International law. A Common Part. 3rd ed. Moscow, 2005. 432 p. (In Russ.)

Lyubbe-Vol'f G. International protection of human rights and the principle of subsidiarity: arguments in favor of a “corridor solution” in case of conflict of rights. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, 2011, no. 2, pp. 67—72. (In Russ.)

Lyubchenko M. Ya. Interaction between the European court of human rights and national judicial jurisdictions. Cand. diss. Krasnoyarsk, 2018. 241 p. (In Russ.)

Modern problems of organization of public authority. Ed. by S. A. Avak'yan. Moscow, 2014. 596 p. (In Russ.)

Morshchakova T. G. Constitutional and judicial implementation of the European convention on human rights. Sravnitel'noe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, 2016, no. 2, pp. 182—189. (In Russ.)

Peters A. Compensatory Constitutionalism: The Function and Potential of Fundamental International Norms and Structures. Leiden Journal of International Law, 2006, vol. 19, iss. 3. Available at: https://edoc.unibas.ch/5309/1/20100219153135_4b7ea0c729a55.pdf.

Pimenova O. I. Legal integration in the EU and its “national” aspect. Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki = Law. Journal of the Higher School of Economics, 2017, no. 3, pp. 136—153. (In Russ.)

Pimenova O. I. Subsidiary principle in the European Union's Law: criteria of application. Sovremennoe pravo, 2012, no. 8, pp. 144—147. (In Russ.)

Romano C. P. R. The Rule of Prior Exhaustion of Domestic Remedies: Theory and Practice in International Human Rights Procedures. Available at: http://cesareromano.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Exhaustion-of-Domestic-Remedies.pdf.

Shany Y. Towards a General Margin of Appreciation Doctrine in International Law. European Journal of International Law, 2005, vol. 16, no. 5.

Shustrov D. G. Tamed Leviathan: state as an object of constitutional law. St. Petersburg, 2014. P. 346—378. (In Russ.)

Stein E. Lawyers, Judges, and the Making of a Transnational Constitution. American Journal of International Law, 1981, vol. 75, no. 1.

Syudr F. Subsidiarity — “New Framework” for the European Court of Human Rights (the Convention Supplementing Protocol no. 15 and 16). Prava cheloveka. Praktika Evropeyskogo suda po pravam cheloveka, 2014, no. 6, pp. 4—14. (In Russ.)

Tikhomirov Yu. A. The Theory of competence. M., 2001. 354 p. (In Russ.)

Tolstykh V. L. “Principled resistance” against European Court of Human Rights judgments in the light of critical theory. Mezhdunarodnoe pravosudie, 2018, no. 1, pp. 79—89. (In Russ.)

Tumanov V. A. Favorites. Moscow, 2010. Pp. 579—697 (In Russ.)

Tunkin G. I. Law and Power in International Relations. Moscow, 1983. 200 p. (In Russ.)

Van Khuk M. Law as Communication. St. Petersburg, 2012. 288 p. (In Russ.)

Varlamova N. V. Internationalization and constitutionalization as interrelated trends in the development of modern law. Internationalization of constitutional law: modern trends. Ed. by N. V. Varlamova, T. A. Vasil'eva. Moscow, 2017. Pp. 9—30. (In Russ.)

Vasil'eva T. A. The principle of subsidiarity in the case law of the Court of Justice and the constitutional courts of the EU member states. Trudy Instituta gosudarstva i prava RAN, 2016, no. 5, pp. 5—29. (In Russ.)

Vasil'eva T. A. The Impact of European Integration on the Activities of Parliaments of EU Member States. Internationalization of constitutional law in the term globalization. Ed. by T. A. Vasil'eva. Moscow, 2014. Pp. 61—81. (In Russ.)

Verstraete A. H. G. The Future of the European Court of Human Rights: Facing the Backlog Challenge. Available at: https://lib.ugent.be/fulltxt/RUG01/002/163/081/RUG01-002163081_2014_0001_AC.pdf.

Yarza F. S. Subsidiarity, Human Rights and Judicial Activism: The Role of Courts. Ed. by M. Dybowski, R. García Pérez. Globalization of Law. The Role of Human Dignity. Cizur Menor, Navarra, Spain, 2018.

Yumashev Yu. M. On the legal nature of the European Community. European Integration: Legal Issues. Book 1. Ed. by B. N. Topornin, A. I. Kovler, M. M. Slavin, I. S. Krylova. Moscow, 1992. Pp. 23—40. (In Russ.)

Zidentop L. Democracy in Europe. Ed. by V. L. Inozemtsev. Moscow, 2001. 312 p. (In Russ.)

Zupančič M. B. Constitutional Law and the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights: An Attempt at a Synthesis. German Law Journal, 2001, vol. 2, iss. 10.

Adobe pdf 24  Download

On Personal Data as an Institute of International Information Cybersecurity in the Projection of International Organizations  Pdf 16

Gontar L. O.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: cambridge.gontar@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.002

Abstract
In the context of the development of information technologies, one often encounters the problem of international information cyber security and seeks legal solutions to ensure adequately guarantees in the emerging information society. The article proposes to analyze the protection of personal data as a key institution of international information cyber security, which will determine the concept of this sub-sector. Understanding the protection of personal data as an institution of the aforementioned sub-industry is of practical importance. It is dictated by the need to study international information cyber security and the actual possibility for further development of theoretical and practical legal recommendations. The article includes cases and theoretical and practical conclusions on them. It touches on the case of the “Snowden effect”, which marked the beginning of a violent reaction of legislators in various states to these changes, as well as its transformation into an international problem. It is important to understand in which direction it is relevant at the international level in the implementation of international information cyber security, which refers us to an understanding of the information society and other conceptual issues. In addition to this, the article analyzes the case study “Big Browser Watch”, which demonstrates more clearly the position of the European Court of Human Rights regarding mass surveillance and attempts made to offer legal remedies. This solution also refers to the more global problem of “electronic warfare”, which in fact attaches importance to the institution of personal data protection. The article contains a synthesis of theoretical and practical approaches which allow us to argue about the existence and dynamics of the personal data protection institution within the framework of the sub-branch of international cyber information security law.

Keywords
institute for the protection of personal data, Convention 108, information society, information rights, European Court of Human Rights, Snowden effect.

For citation
Gontar L. O. On Personal Data as an Institute of International Information Cybersecurity in the Projection of International Organizations. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 74—86. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.002 (In Russ.)

References

Ciancaglini V., Balduzzi M., McArdle R., Rösler M. Below the Surface: Exploring the Deep Web. Trend Micro, 2018. 47 p.

Convention 108+: better protecting us in the digital era. Available at: https://www.coe.int/en/web/data-protection/conference-onconvention-108 (accessed 12.08.2019).

Denning P. J. The ARPANET after Twenty Years. American Scientist, 1989, vol. 77, pp. 530—535. 

Greenwald G. No place to hide: Edward Snowden, NSA, and the U. S. Surveillance State. New York, 2014. 300 p.

Gurnow M. The Edward Snowden Affair: Exposing the Politics and Media Behind the NSA Scandal. Indianapolis, 2014. 384 p.

Kovler A. I. European Convention in the International System of Human Rights Protection. Moscow, 2019. 304 p. (In Russ.)

Kovler A. I. Human Rights in the Digital Age. Bulletin of the European Court of Human Rights, 2019, no. 6, pp. 146—148. (In Russ.)

Obama B. Security and Privacy: In search of balance. Vital Speeches of the Day, 2014, 80 (30), pp. 102—107.

Shatilina A. S. Human Rights on the Internet: The Problem of Recognizing Internet Access Rights. Pretsendenty Evropeyskogo suda po pravam cheloveka, 2018, no. 1 (49), pp. 38—46. (In Russ.)

Adobe pdf 24  Download

■ LABOR LAW. SOCIAL WELFARE LAW

International Legal Mechanisms for Countering the Proliferation of Poor-Quality and Falsified Medical Products  Pdf 16

Malichenko V. S.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: vlad.malichenko@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.003

Abstract
Under the influence of globalization, manufacturers of medical products are forced to revise the economic efficiency of their activities. This leads to a significant increase in the number of participants at all stages — from the moment of development and production to getting into health care institutions, while states, regardless the level of their economic development, are not able to provide the proper control level of the entire chain of medical products’ circulation. The results of a WHO study in 2018 shows that the prevalence of counterfeit products is about 10% of the total global turnover of medical products. Access to safe, high-quality and effective medical products is an essential element in ensuring the proper quality of medical care, as well as the realization of the right of everyone to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, as articulated in the provisions of the fundamental acts of a universal and regional nature. The access to safe medical products is an important element in achieving the UN development goals. However, despite the high relevance of this problem, the activities of international organizations in this area remain extremely fragmented, which does not allow development of comprehensive solutions to counter the proliferation of counterfeit medical products. At the same time, high activity in counteracting counterfeit medical products is undertaken at the level of regional organizations, which is a trigger for the harmonization and convergence of national legislation for the introduction of common standards for countering the distribution of counterfeit medical products.
The article analyzes the main prerequisites that contribute to the increase in the distribution of falsified and low-quality products, provides an assessment of the impact of these processes on the implementation of sustainable development goals, as well as the implementation of fundamental human rights. The author consolidates the main stages in the formation of terminological foundations regarding counterfeit and poor-quality products within the framework of acts of international organizations, identifies the main trends in the field of international cooperation to counter this threat and also develops recommendations for improving the effectiveness of international organizations. Special attention is paid to the issue of harmonization and convergence of national legislations in relation to countering the falsification of medical products in the framework of the activities of regional integration associations: European Union, Council of Europe, Eurasian Economic Union. The author analyzes the main directions of the state policy of the Russian Federation regarding the development of control and supervision activities to prevent the appearance of falsified and substandard medical products, and also provides an overview of the development of national legislation in this area in recent years.

Keywords
falsification, counterfeit, medical products, medicines, online trading.

For citation
Malichenko V. S. International Legal Mechanism for Countering the Proliferation of Poor-Quality and Falsified Medical Products. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 87—100. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.003 (In Russ.)

References

Bonar H. et al. Combating Falsified Medical Product-Related Crime: a Guide to Good Legislative Practices. United Nations. May 2019.

Cheng M. M. Is the Drugstore Safe? Counterfeit Diabetes Products on the Shelves. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 2009, vol. 3, iss. 6.

Firsov I. V. Illicit trafficking of medical products: penal law study. Moscow, 2016. 22 p. (In Russ.)

Golikova T. Counterfeit medical products undermine public trust in healthcare. Vestnik Roszdravnadzora, 2011, no. 6, pp. 11—12. (In Russ.)

Harper J., Gellie B. Counterfeit Medicines — Survey Report. Strasbourg, 2006.

Harris J., Stevens P., Morris J. Keeping it Real: Protecting the World’s Poor from Fake Drugs. International Policy Network, May 2009.

Khabriev R. U., Abashidze A. Kh., Malichenko V. S. The Role of Pharmaceutical Regulation in Implementation of the Human Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2016, no. 2, pp. 16—22. (In Russ.)

Mackey T. K., Cuomo R., Guerra C. et al. After counterfeit Avastin — what have we learned and what can be done. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, 2015, vol. 12.

Malichenko V. S. Circulation of medicines — an important component of the U. S. national security strategy. Obozrevatel’, 2013, no. 7, pp. 80—91. (In Russ.)

Miller С. C. Google Reaches $500 Million Settlement with Government. 24 August, 2011. Available at: https://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/08/24/google-reaches-500-million-settlement-with-government/.

Study of health and economic damage of substandard and falsified medical products. Zheneva, 2018. (WHO/EMP/RHT/SAV2017.02). (In Russ.)

The Partnership for Safe Medicines. Black Market Cancer Drug Cases 2007—13. 2013. Available at: http://www.safemedicines.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/BlackMarketcancer_singlepage2.pdf.

Adobe pdf 24  Download

■ RESEARCHES OF YOUNG SCHOLARS

Current Issues of It-Technologies in Legal Science and Practice  Pdf 16

Churakov V. D.

National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Moscow 101000, Russian Federation
E-mail: vchurakov@hse.ru

DOI: 10.12737/ jflcl.2020.004

Abstract
The actual state of science and technology predetermines changes in the methodology of scientific research and social practices. The paper is dedicated to various aspects of information technology application in legal science and practice: current technological development; prospects for the use of technology in legal research; examples of required regulatory changes.
The author discusses the basic principles of the development of Big Data and the scope of Legal Tech. Big Data in legal science operates in two main areas: provides an opportunity to explain existing phenomena; provides the ability to predict the behavior in the legal sphere. Therefore, the methodology and philosophy of legal research significantly change. The application of Big Data makes it possible, on the basis of objectively obtained parameters, to build connections and correlations that are independent of the researcher's commitment to any scientific concept. In other words, the research hypothesis is not built up before the research but is formed only after the interpretation of the obtained interrelations.
The example of the dynamic development of legal institutions reveals the problems associated with the need for an interdisciplinary combination of law and IT-technologies. Legal science is characterized by the following set of problems: the legal personality of artificial intelligence; data collection and verification; interpretation of the results; the role of traditional tools; “trust” to calculations; the international nature of digitalization; personal data.
Practical problems are associated with: incorporation into the legislation of new principles, terms, definitions, and legal institutions; workflow development; the reliability of electronic documents; the civil status of Big Data.

Keywords
Big Data, digital economy, IT-technologies in law.

For citation
Churakov V. D. Current Issues of It-Technologies in Legal Science and Practice. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 101—113. DOI: 10.12737/ jflcl.2020.004 (In Russ.)

References

Acquittal and Rehabilitation in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Research report. Ed. by K. D. Titaev. St. Petersburg, 2018. 70 p. (In Russ.)

Akimov N. Influence of Tendencies of “Digital Economy” on Economic Function of the State and Its Realization. Yurisprudentsiya: teoriya i praktika, 2017, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 431—436. (In Russ.)

Andreev V. K. About the Concept of Digital Rights and their Transferability. Zhurnal predprinimatel'skogo i korporativnogo prava, 2018, no. 2, pp. 38—41. (In Russ.)

Andreeva L. A. On the Issue of Digital Law. Actual Problems of Science of Law: the Post-conference “I International Research and Practical” Collected Papers. No. 1 (1). Novosibirsk, 2017. Pp. 32—41. (In Russ.)

Bassan S., Harel O. The Ethics in Synthetics: Statistic in the Service of Ethics and Law in Health-Related Research in Big Data from Multiple Source. Cleveland-Marshall Journal of Law and Health, 2018, vol. 31, iss. 1.

Bennett Moses L., Chan J. Using Big Data for Legal and Law Enforcement Decisions: Testing the New Tools. University of New South Wales Law Journal, 2014, vol. 37, no. 2.

Dörke C. The Importance of Big Data for Jurisprudence and Legal Practice. Big Data in Context: Legal, Social and Technological Insights. Ed. by T. Hoeren, B. Kolany-Raiser. Cham, Switzerland, 2018.

Drobyshev P. IT-Technologies in Legal Business. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3028868. (In Russ.)

Fat'yanov A. A. Actual Issues of Legal Regulation in the Sphere of Digital Economy. Uchenye trudy Rossiyskoy akademii advokatury i notariata, 2018, no. 3 (50), pp. 71—77. (In Russ.)

Goloskokov L. V. Issues of Contemporary Law and Business in Going to Digital Economy and Common Methods of Solution. Materials of the VI International Scientific Congress “Entrepreneurship and Business: Theory, Methodology and Practical Issues of Effective Management”. Ed. by A. V. Sharkova, O. N. Vasil'eva, B. Otorova. Part 1. Moscow, 2018. Pp. 65—68. (In Russ.)

Habte M. L. Federal and State Privacy Laws: Strategies for Analysis of Big Data in Healthcare. Healthcare Informatics, 2015, vol. 32, iss. 1.

Hacker P., Petrova B. Reining in the Big Promise of Big Data: Transparency, Inequality, and New Regulatory Frontiers. Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property, 2017, vol. 15, iss. 1. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2773527.

Kaluvas J., Overly M. Big Data. A Business and Legal Guide. London; New York, 2015.

Karnow C. E. A. The Application of Traditional Tort Theory to Embodied Machine Intelligence. Robot Law. Ed. by R. Calo, A. M. Froomkin, I. Kerr. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, Massachusetts, USA, 2016.

Kartskhiya A. Digitalisation in Law and Law Enforcement. Monitoring pravoprimeneniya, 2018, no. 1, pp. 36—40. (In Russ.)

Kitchin R. Big data and human geography: Opportunities, challenges and risks. Dialogues in Human Geography, 2013, no. 3.

Laney D. 3-D Data Management: Controlling Data Volume, Velocity and Variety. Application Delivery Strategies. META Group. February 6, 2001.

Law-Making Process in the Entities of the Russian Federation (on the Example of the Republic of Crimea and Federal City of Sevastopol). Ed. by S. A. Trofimov, I. V. Bondarchuk. Simferopol', 2018. 355 p. (In Russ.)

Legaltech — Modern Technologies in the Current Law. Available at: https://echo.msk.ru/programs/razvorot/2310144-echo/. (In Russ.)

Mayer-Shenberger V., Kuk'er K. Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think. Moscow, 2014. 221 p. (In Russ.)

Nature, 2008, vol. 455, iss. 7209. Available at: https://www.nature.com/nature/volumes/455/issues/7209.

NYT: bespilotnyy avtomobil' Uber nasmert' sbil peshekhoda v SShA. Available at: https://tass.ru/proisshestviya/5046544.

Pozner R. A. Frontiers of Legal Theory. Ed. by M. I. Odintsova. Moscow, 2017. 480 p. (In Russ.)

Rassadin A. A., Shigin M. D. Influence of Digital Economy on Law and Society. Materials of X International Research and Practical Contest “Professional of the Year-2018” . Ed. by G. Yu. Gulyaev. Penza, 2018. Pp. 55—57. (In Russ.)

Regulatory Impact Assessment: Methods and Experience. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov. Moscow, 2016. 69 p. (In Russ.)

Richards N. M., Smart W. D. How should the Law Think about Robots? Robot Law. Ed. by R. Calo, A. M. Froomkin, I. Kerr. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, Massachusetts, USA, 2016.

Savel'ev A. I. Tendencies of Freedom of Contract Evolution under the Influence of Contemporary IT-Techonlogies. Freedom of Contract. Ed. by M. A. Rozhkova. Moscow, 2016. Pp. 481—543. (In Russ.)

Savel'ev A. I. The Issues of Implementing Legislation on Personal Data in the Era of Big Data. Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki = Law. Journal of the Higher School of Economics, 2015, no. 1, pp. 43—67. (In Russ.)

Tatarinova S. S. Digital Economy and Law: New Challenge — New Perspective. Yuridicheskiy vestnik Samarskogo universiteta, 2017, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 62—66. (In Russ.)

Tikhomirov Yu. A. Comparative Jurisprudence: the Modern Concept and Social Practice. Pravo i ekonomika, 2018, no. 11, pp. 5—9. (In Russ.)

Tikhomirov Yu. A. et al. Socio-Legal Research in Regions. Moscow, 2011. 256 p. (In Russ.)

Vaypan V. A. Legal Regulation of Digital Economy. Pravo i ekonomika, 2017, no. 11, pp. 12—17. (In Russ.)

Volkov V. V., Skugarevskiy D. A., Titaev K. D. Problems and Prospects for Studies Based on Big Data (the Case of Sociology of Law). Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2016, no. 1, pp. 48—58. (In Russ.)

Adobe pdf 24  Download

Foreign Experience in Legal Regulation of Liquidation of Accumulated Environmental Damage  Pdf 16

Kabatskaya L. N.

Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: lili.kab@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.005

Abstract
The article deals with the legal regulation of the elimination of accumulated environmental damage by different states. For the Russian Federation, the elimination of accumulated environmental damage is a new experience and the mechanism of its functioning has not been sufficiently studied. Consideration of foreign experience of legal regulation of elimination of accumulated environmental damage will allow to determine the general features of legal regulation of the said process in different states and to study the foreign legal instruments providing the greatest efficiency of elimination of accumulated environmental damage. Using the positive experience of foreign countries in the elimination of accumulated environmental damage will improve the legal regulation of this issue in the Russian Federation. The author analyzes the works devoted to the elimination of accumulated environmental damage, legal acts of the USA, Germany, Great Britain, Austria regulating the cleaning of contaminated territories, articles of Russian and foreign scientists on this issue.
Based on the conclusions of leading scientists that the responsibility for the elimination of accumulated environmental damage is mainly assigned to the owner or right holder of the contaminated territory, the author summarizes the essential features of the elimination of accumulated damage in foreign countries and focuses on the fact that the legal regulation of the elimination of accumulated damage in these countries is carried out within the framework of land relations, the leading role in the identification, assessment and cleaning of territories is played by local authorities, as well as, that the restoration of land is carried out for the purpose of its reuse.

Keywords
elimination of accumulated environmental damage in foreign countries, contaminated territories and objects.

For citation
Kabatskaya L. N. Foreign Experience in Legal Regulation of Liquidation of Accumulated Environmental Damage. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 114—128. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.005 (In Russ.)

References

Barlow M., Tilling S. Changes to the Contaminated Land Regime. The In-House Lawyer. 2012. 1 April. Available at: http://www.inhouselawyer.co.uk/legal-briefing/contaminated-land-regime-changes/ (accessed 02.10.2018).

Bearden D. M. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act: A Summary of Superfund Cleanup Authorities and Related Provisions of the Act. 2012. Available at: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41039.pdf (accessed 21.03.2019).

Broslavskiy L. I. Liability for environment and damages compensation: laws and practices of Russia, the United States and the European Union. Moscow, 2014. 227 p. (In Russ.)

Glante F. In Deutschland ist Bodenschutz Gesetz. Available at: https://www.dw.com/de/in-deutschland-ist-bodenschutzgesetz/a-18658586 (accessed 13.10.2018).

Ignat'eva I. A. Legal support for the elimination of accumulated environmental damage. Rossiyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2017, no. 2, pp. 164—177. (In Russ.)

Kichigin N. V. Regulation of accumulated environmental damage. Ekologiya proizvodstva, 2016, no. 9, pp. 16—21. (In Russ.)

Land Remediation: Bringing Brownfield Sites Back to Use. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/land-remediationbringing-brownfield-sites-back-to-use/land-remediation-bringing-brownfield-sites-back-to-use#innovation (accessed 04.05.2019).

Legal regulation of reparation of environmental damage. Scientific-practical manual. Ed. by N. V. Kichigin. Moscow, 2017. 368 p. (In Russ.)

Solov'yanov A. A. Past (accumulated) environmental damage: problems and solutions. The experience of countries of Western Europe. Available at: http://ecovestnik.ru/index.php/2013-07-07-02-13-50/kommentrij-specialista/2339-proshlyj-nakoplennyj-ekologicheskijushcherb-problemy-i-resheniya-3-opyt-stran-zapadnoj-evropy (accessed 13.10.2018). (In Russ.)

Solov'yanov A. A., Chernin S. Ya. Elimination of accumulated environmental damage in the Russian Federation. Moscow, 2017. 455 p. (In Russ.)

Commentaries on Russian Federal Law No. 7-FZ “On environmental protection”, January 10, 2002. Ed. by N. I. Khludeneva. Moscow, 2018. 528 p. (In Russ.)

Übersohn G. Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz (BBodSchG). Available at: https://wirtschaftslexikon.gabler.de/definition/bundesbodenschutzgesetz-bbodschg-27833 (accessed 13.10.2018).

What is the Difference Between a Removal Action and a Remedial Action? Available at: https://superfund.zendesk.com/hc/en-us/articles/211635948-What-is-the-difference-between-a-removal-action-and-a-remedial-action (accessed 13.10.2018).

Yudina A. V. Objects, purposes and levels of comparative legal studies. Vestnik Rossiyskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Seriya: Yuridicheskie nauki, 2014, no. 1, pp. 129—133. (In Russ.)

Adobe pdf 24  Download

Litvinov Assignment: A Fata Morgana in Russian Doctrine of International Investment Law  Pdf 16

Solovyeva A. V.

Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow 119454, Russian Federation
E-mail: helena.soloveva@gmail.com

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.006

Abstract
The article deals with the problem of periodization of the history of international investment law in the Russian and American doctrines. The author gives an idea of the peculiarities of the development of Soviet-American relations after the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia. The article analyzes the impact of Litvinov Assignment on the formation of basic standards for the protection of foreign investors rights.
The purpose of the study is to restore doctrinal justice and ensure proper analytical registration of the considered events. The achievement of this goal is connected with the study of historical and legal aspects of the emergence and development of key principles and standards for the protection of foreign investment. For the first time in Russian legal science, the fact of the influence of Litvinov Assignment on the development of international investment law is expressed and justified as an author's concept on a significant factual, normative and theoretical material.
A wide range of different research methods is used: dialectical-materialistic philosophy, system analysis as General methods of scientific knowledge. In the process of research, general scientific and special legal methods were used: comparative legal, historical and legal.
The conclusion is formulated about the fundamental importance of the first decrees of the Soviet regime on nationalization as the most important source of international investment law and the program of nationalization, which led to the emergence of new interstate relations. New approaches to legal regulation of expropriation appeared, and Litvinov Assignment laid the basic principle of compensation for the forcible expropriation of the property of a foreign investor.

Keywords
international investment law, Soviet-American relations, Livtinov Assignment.

For citation
Solovyeva A. V. Litvinov Assignment: A Fata Morgana in Russian Doctrine of International Investment Law. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 1, pp. 129—147. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.006 (In Russ.)

References

Beale J. H. The Conflict of Laws. Vol. 2. New York, 1935. 2127 p.

Bennett E. M. Recognition of Russia: An American Foreign Policy Dilemma. Waltham, 1970. 226 p.

Bishop D. The Roosevelt—Litvinov Agreement: The American View. Syracuse, 1965. 297 p.

Bishop R. D., Crawford J., Reisman W. M. (eds.). Foreign Investment Disputes: Cases, Materials and Commentary. 2nd ed. Hague, 2005. 1348 p.

Citing Correspondence between His Majesty's Government and the French Government respecting the Anglo-Russian Trade Agreement, 1921.

Citing Correspondence between British and Russian Governments concerning Russia's Foreign Indebtedness // British and Foreign State Papers. 1921. Vol. 114. No. 380.

Clay H. J. Constitutional Law. Executive Powers. United States Rather Than Foreign Creditors Held Entitled Through Litvinov Assignment to Domestic Assets of Nationalized Russian Corporation. Harvard Law Review, 1942, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 864—866.

Coyle J. F. The Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation in the Modern Era. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 2013, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 302—357.

Dickinson E. D. The Case of Salimoff & Co. American Journal of International Law, 1933, vol. 27, no. 4. Pp. 743—747.

Diehl A. The Core Standard of International Investment Protection: Fair and Equitable Treatment. Alphen aan den Rijn: Wolters Kluwer, 2012. 628 p.

Dodd W. International Relations and the Treaty Power. American Journal of International Law, 1944, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 360—362.

Douglas Z., Pauwelyn J., Viñuales J. The Foundations of International Investment Law. Bringing theory into practice. Oxford, 2015. 586 p.

Dumberry P. The Formation and Identification of Rules of Customary International Law in International Investment Law. Cambridge, 2016. 496 p.

Effects in Private Litigation of Failure to Recognize New Foreign Governments. University of Chicago Law Review, 1951, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 73—97.

Fel'dman D. I. The Recognition of States in Modern International Law. Kazan', 1965. 258 p. (In Russ.)

Friedman S. Expropriation in International Law. London, 1953. 236 p.

Gribble R. United States Recognition of Soviet Russia: 1917—1933 — Church and State Responses. American Catholic Studies, 2008, vol. 119, no. 4. Pp. 21—51.

Grotius H. The Freedom of the Seas (1608) Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Ed. by J. B. Scott. Oxford, 1916. 188 p.

Haslam J. Stalin and Litvinov. In G. Gorodetsky (ed.). Soviet Foreign Policy. 1917—1991: A Retrospective. London, 1994. Pp. 55—62.

Henkin L. Foreign Affairs and the Constitution. New York, 1972. 535 p.

International Legal Capacity. Moscow, 1971. Pp. 7—23. (In Russ.)

Ivanyan E. A. The History of the USA. Moscow, 2004. 576 p. (In Russ.)

J. K. G. Extraterritorial Effect of Foreign Decrees and Seizures. University of Pennsylvania Law Review and American Law Register, 1940, vol. 88, no. 8, pp. 983-994

Jessup Ph.C. The Litvinov Assignment and the Pink Case. American Journal of International Law, 1942, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 282—288.

Jessup Ph. C. The Litvinov Assignment and the Belmont Case. American Journal of International Law, 1937, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 481—484.

Johnson O. T. Jr., Gimblett J. From Gunboats to BITs: The Evolution of Modern International Investment Law. Ed. by Karl P. Sauvant. Yearbook on International Investment Law & Policy 2010—2011, 2012. Pp. 649—692.

Kammerhofer J. The Challenges of History in International Investment Law: A View From Legal Theory. Ed. by S. W. Schill, C. J. Tams, R. Hofmann. Frankfurt, 2018. Pp. 164—176.

Klimacek S. M. The President's Power to Exempt a Foreign Nation from Local Taxation. Lawyer of the Americas, 1983, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 585—591.

Labin D. K., Solov'eva A. V. International Investment Law within the System of International Law. Moskovskiy zhurnal mezhdunarodnogo prava, 2017, no. 3, pp. 40—51. (In Russ.)

Legislative Reference Service Report, Expropriation of American-owned property by foreign governments in the twentieth century. International Legal Materials, 1963, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 1066—1110.

Lunts L. A. Course of Private International Law. Moscow, 2002. 1007 p. (In Russ.)

Lunts L. A. The US court at the service of monopolistic capital Moscow, 1948. 36 p. (In Russ.)

Mal'kov V. Roosevelt — Litvinov. Two encounters in the White House with an eight-year interval. Russia XXI, 2013, no. 5, pp. 164—183. (In Russ.)

Miles K. The Origins of International Investment Law: Empire, Environment, and the Safeguarding of Capital. Cambridge, 2013. 464 p.

Mlechin L. M. Ministers of foreign affairs. 1917—1949. Chapter 3. St. Petersburg, 2016. 383 p. (In Russ.)

Moscow—Washington politics and diplomacy of the Kremlin, 1921—1941. Vol. 2: 1929—1933. Moscow, 2009. 717 p. (In Russ.)

Narinskiy M. M., Vasil'eva N. Yu. M. M. Litvinov — brilliant diplomat, a distinguished Commissar. Famous Russian diplomats: Foreign Ministers — the twentieth century. Ed. by A. V. Torkunov, A. V. Revyakin. Moscow, 2007. Pp. 179—227. (In Russ.)

Nussbaum A. Arbitration between the Lena Goldfields Ltd. and the Soviet Government. Cornell Law Review, 1950, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 31—53.

Pechatnov V. O., Manykin A. S. The history of US foreign policy. Moscow, 2012. 672 p. (In Russ.)

Phillips H. Maxim M. Litvinov and Soviet-American Relations, 1918—1946. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 1996. 15 p.

Rhodes B. D. A Prophet in the Russian Wilderness: The Mission of Consul Felix Cole at Archangel, 1917—1919. Review of Politics, 1984, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 388—409.

Richard C. J. The Shadow of a Plan: The Rationale behind Wilson's 1918 Siberian Intervention. The Historian, 1986, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 64—84.

Russia and the USA: Economic relations. 1933—1941. Moscow, 2001. 480 p. (In Russ.)

Salacuse J. The Law of Investment Treaties. 2nd ed. Oxford, 2015. 528 p.

Schill S. W. W(h)ither Fragmentation? On the Literature and Sociology of International Investment Law. European Journal of International Law, 2001, vol. 22, iss. 3, pp. 875—908.

Schreuer C., Dolzer R. Principles of International Investment Law. Oxford, 2008. 433 p.

Sevost'yanov G. N. Moscow — Washington. Towards the recognition 1918—1933. Moscow, 2004. 405 p. (In Russ.)

Sheynis Z. S. The first steps in Litvinov's diplomacy. Novaya i noveyshaya istoriya, 1988, no. 1, pp. 152—169. (In Russ.)

Solov'eva A. V. New Approaches to the Reform of Investor-State Dispute Settlement. Moskovskiy zhurnal mezhdunarodnogo prava, 2019, no. 1. DOI: 10.24833/0869-0049-2019-1-27—39. (In Russ.)

Todd W. An Historical Analysis of the Function of the Minimum Standard of Treatment. Leiden, 2011. Pp. 335—381.

Unterberger B. M. Woodrow Wilson and the Bolsheviks: The “Acid Test” of Soviet-American Relations. Diplomatic History, 1987, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 71—91.

US-Soviet relations. 1934—1939. Moscow, 2003. 797 p. (In Russ.)

Vakhrameev A. V. Essays on the history of Soviet foreign policy (1917—1991). Moscow, 2007. 332 p. (In Russ.)

Vattel E. de. The Law of Nations or Principles of Natural Law. Book 2. Chapter 8. London, 1797. Pp. 312—319.

Wohl P. Nationalization of Banking Corporations in Russia. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 1927, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 385—410.

Wortley B. Expropriation in Public International Law. Cambridge, 1959. 169 p.

Yakubovskiy V. P. A Diplomat's Memoir: [on diplomatic service of M. M. Litvinov]. Mezhdunarodnaya zhizn', 1992, no. 11/12, pp. 168—171. (In Russ.)

Adobe pdf 24  Download

■ MONITORING OF THE FOREIGN COUNTRIES LEGISLATION  Pdf 16

■ NEW BOOKS  Pdf 16

Archive of issues

2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
2012
2011