Chernogor N. N., Emelyanov A. S.
N. N. Chernogor, A. S. Emelyanov
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Abstract. The article considers certain directions of developing a comparative method in jurisprudence, which are conditioned by the need to include law and order and interests in the objects of comparative law. Based on domestic and foreign sources, the authors reveal the existing interdependencies between them. The research literature is the works of domestic and foreign researchers in the field of comparative legal studies, as well as philosophy and theory of law.
The methodological basis of the research is based on general scientific and private scientific methods, such as dialectical method, analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction, comparative legal and historical legal methods, and a systematic approach.
The research reveals the significance of the rule of law as an object of comparative law, the concept of interest and the classification of interests in law. The process of influence of foreign legal systems on the legal field of the Russian Federation is considered. The authors recognize the full value of modern comparative law and the legal geography of the world, and hence, identify new criteria for differentiation and integration of various legal systems, international, supranational, national, trans- and subnational levels. In order to underline these criterias the authors introduce sonoma, itara and sodica concepts, which denote legal phenomena uniting various legal systems and the rule of law, and which are of a normative, institutional and axiological nature, respectively.
Keywords: comparative law, comparative method, law and order, interest, private interest, public interest, legal interest, system of law, legal system, integration and differentiation of society.
For citation: Chernogor N. N., Emelyanov A. S. Law and Order and Interest in the Context of Comparative Law Development. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 3, pp. 5—25. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.016 (In Russ.)
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Di Gregorio A.
A. Di Gregorio
University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Abstract. Various manifestations of the modern democracy crisis require their own understanding, including updating the conceptual apparatus and scientific discourse. Until recently western democracies managed to export their model as successful, but since crisis signs and degradation accumulate, they indicate a deep evolution of liberal democracy. If earlier the scientific discourse was dominated by the theme of “transition to democracy”, especially in relation to former Communist regimes, today it has been replaced by the rhetoric of disintegration, regression or constitutional degeneration. It concerns not only these countries, but widely covers the so-called consolidated democracies. The “illiberal democracy” concept dominates in the scientific literature of recent years. It has prompted constitutional scholars to introduce such concepts as “populist constitutionalism” and “authoritarian constitutionalism”. The article analyzes the main works of authors who introduce these concepts. As for the European context itself, the author believes that the introduction of a concept like “authoritarian liberalism” is justified, in particular, in relation to the EU's reactions to the economic crises of recent years.
The author concludes that the simplified dichotomy between democratic and autocratic political regimes again becomes more complex with the appearance of difficult-to-classify transit forms, which are endowed with a sufficient degree of stability. This, in turn, points to the need for large-scale interdisciplinary research, since the efforts of comparative law alone are no longer sufficient.
Keywords: illiberal democracy, authoritarian liberalism, authoritarian constitutionalism, populist constitutionalism.
For citation: Di Gregorio A. The Crisis of Modern Democracy and the Emergence of New Intermediate Categories Between Democracy and Authoritarianism. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 3, pp. 26—33. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.017 (In Russ.)
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Isaeva A. A.
A. A. Isaeva
Law Institute, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050, Russian Federation
Abstract. The article presents an analysis of the problem of restriction of freedom of conscience and the principles used by the national constitutional justice bodies and the European Court of Human Rights to determine their admissibility. The aim of the work is to identify the risks of applying the German principle of proportionality and the American balancing, as well as determining the possibility of using them in Russia.
Along with the general methods of scientific knowledge, special legal methods are used, i.e.: analysis of terminology, modeling, comparative legal study of the provisions of legislation and law enforcement practice, international legal acts, generalization of ideas in science.
A model of the internal structure of freedom of conscience, the possibility of state restrictions on the internal and external components of its powers is considered. It is proved that the principle of proportionality is not a sufficiently flexible tool in protecting freedom of conscience. It is only allowed to determine whether the restriction on the exercise of freedom of conscience is permissible or not. At the same time, the method of balancing interests used by the US Supreme Court seems to be more flexible in protecting freedom of conscience. The court, while reaching a balance between conflicting interests, does not exclude the possibility of the existence of one of them, but describes the conditions under which both of them can be realized to one degree or another. However, assuming these interpretative powers, the judiciary is expanding its sphere of competence through norm-setting.
It is concluded that the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation in its decisions on issues of freedom of conscience does not consistently use any of the principles considered, but it often refers to individual elements of the principle of proportionality. However, it seems that it is advisable to apply the particular principle sequentially, reflecting all the elements in its enforcement acts. This may increase the effectiveness of the freedom of conscience protection, the validity and consistency in setting forth the content of the court decision itself.
Keywords: freedom of conscience, principle of proportionality, American Balancing, restricting human rights, European Court of Human Rights, US Supreme Court.
For citation: Isaeva A. A. Using the Principle of Proportionality and the American Balancing in Determining the Availability of Restrictions of Freedom of Conscience. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 3, pp. 34—50. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.018 (In Russ.)
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Buzova N. V.
N. V. Buzova
Center for the Study of Justice Problems, Russian State University of Justice, Moscow 117418, Russian Federation
Abstract. The international treaties on copyright and related rights provide legal protection for the results of the creative activities of authors, performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations in many countries of the world. The development of scientific and technological progress, the emergence of new objects and new ways of using set the world community the task of improving international legal mechanisms and finding new solutions. Within the framework of international organizations, drafts of new international treaties are being developed, but in the process of their creation, experts encounter some problems.
The article discusses the initiatives and draft international treaties on the database protection and the rights of broadcasting organizations developed by the Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights of the World Intellectual Property Organization. Attention is drawn to problematic issues that require additional discussion, for example, the scope of protection provided, the protected object and the rights granted. A comparative legal analysis of national legislation in the field of copyright and related rights is carried out.
Based on the analysis of acts of foreign countries and draft international treaties, the article identifies problems that impede the development of international legal regulation. Attention is drawn to the complexity of creating a comprehensive international legal mechanism to protect the objects of related rights throughout the world. The article notes the advisability of extending the legal protection of the results of the intellectual activity of broadcasting organizations not only during broadcasting and cable broadcasting, but also issues of how to use such results in information and telecommunication networks. As a study of years of normative work on draft international treaties shows, in order to create an effective legal protection mechanism, in addition to legal and economic research, the political will of states is needed to bring positions closer and find compromises.
Keywords: database, broadcasting, exclusive right, producer of phonograms, performer, broadcasting organization, theater director, related rights.
For citation: Buzova N. V. International Legal Regulation of Related Rights: Current Status and Prospects. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 3, pp. 51—67. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.019 (In Russ.)
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Dremliuga R. I., Kripakova A. V., Yakovenko A. A.
R. I. Dremliuga, A. V. Kripakova, A. A. Yakovenko
Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690922, Russian Federation
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. The development of technologies for unmanned (autonomous) transport is one of the strategic priorities of the Russian Federation. Despite the great attention to this area, it is hardly possible to speak about significant successes of Russia in implementing the use of autonomous motor transport on public roads. This study assumes that the legal regime is a catalyst or a deterrent to the development of the autonomous motor transport sector.
The purpose of the study is to analyze the norms in the field of testing and operation of autonomous motor vehicles in the United States of America. This country is one of the leaders in the study area, so their experience can be useful in the development and modification of the Russian legal framework for the regulation of exploiting autonomous motor vehicles. The objectives of the study are: a) to determine the regulatory framework related to the regulation of relations on testing and operation of autonomous vehicles; b) to identify the position of the federation and the states related to the need for regulation and its limits; c) to assess the prospects of borrowing good regulatory practices.
The study is based on a dialectical method of learning, general research methods of abstraction, analysis and synthesis, and specific legal methods (comparative legal, logical and legal, etc.).
The article concludes that the U. S. federal government does not attempt to define all regulatory rules and only sets recommended standards, allowing states to choose their own regulatory approach. In the competition between different approaches in individual states, the softer regulatory model, where testing of autonomous motor vehicles does not require licensing and permitting procedures, is more suitable for the development of this sector of the digital economy. The authors conclude that the U. S. experience can be used in Russia primarily to identify problematic regulatory points and organize control over testing and use of autonomous vehicles.
Keywords: regulation of autonomous vehicles testing, unmanned vehicles, US law, digital economy.
For citation: Dremliuga R. I., Kripakova A. V., Yakovenko A. A. Regulation and Exploitation of Autonomous Vehicle Testing: The US Experience. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 3, pp. 68—85. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.020 (In Russ.)
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Vlasov I. S.
I. S. Vlasov
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
Abstract. Continuous improvement of the legislative norms governing criminal liability for economic crimes is relevant for any legal system. In Germany, this issue has become particularly acute in the last two decades, and German lawyers tend to explain this by “absorption” at the very end of the 20th century of the German Democratic Republic, where this account was subject to fundamentally different legislation.
Since in Germany the rules on criminal liability for economic crimes are established not only by the country's Criminal Code, but also by many special criminal and non-criminal laws, it is important to have a general definition of this set of criminal acts in the legislation. And if it is not in the current criminal law, then it will inevitably have to resort to what is in the German legal doctrine. The author refers to the attempts to give such a definition in many works of German authors; provides a detailed analysis of the relevant norms of special laws (first of all: of the Act on the Fight against Economic Crimes (Wirtschaftsstrafgesetz)), of legal journals, commentaries to the Criminal Code of Germany, and decisions of the Plenum of the Supreme Federal Court. A more or less satisfactory indication of such a definition is contained in the Act on the Fight against Economic Crimes of 1954, which provides for penalties for many economic crimes that are not included in the German Criminal Code, but which are indicated as constituting economic offences in by-laws issued on the basis of special laws in the field of economics. This could be the basis for a complete definition of the concept of the economic crime, if it were not for the fact that ultimately the punishment for a criminal offence could not be established by parliament, but in a by-law issued usually by the executive branch.
Keywords: German criminal law, norms of laws, economic crimes, stabilizing laws, competence of the federal government.
For citation: Vlasov I. S. Features of Liability for Economic Crimes in Germany. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 3, pp. 86—102. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.021 (In Russ.)
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Dedov D. I., Hajiyev Kh. I.
D. I. Dedov, European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg, France
Kh. I. Hajiyev, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
Gagloev O. F.
O. F. Gagloev
Staff of the Government of the Republic of South Ossetia, Tskhinval 100001, Republic of South Ossetia
Abstract. The article is devoted to the study and analysis of the international legal development of dual citizenship regulation in the historical context up to the beginning of the XXI century. Special attention is paid to scientific approaches to the dual citizenship institution in various historical epochs.
The article reveals the attitude to dual citizenship in the Ancient world, when the first beginnings of international legal regulation of the phenomenon of dual citizenship appeared in the form of Greek agreements on epigamy. There was a significant increase in the number of cases of dual citizenship after the development of the New World and the emergence of new states, when European citizens who lived in the New World became simultaneously citizens of newly formed states. The author dwells in detail on the first attempt of the international community to resolve issues of dual citizenship by adopting a single universal act at the Hague Conference on the codification of international law, held under the auspices of the League of Nations in 1930, as well as on the results of regional summits in the framework of the seventh International conference of American States in 1933 and the Afro-Asian Legal Consultative Committee in 1964. The article analyzes the practice of states on bilateral regulation of issues of dual citizenship. Special attention is paid to the policy of the Russian Federation regarding dual citizenship.
It is noted that over time, the attitude to dual citizenship in the science of international law and the practice of countries around the world has become much more tolerant and liberal. Examples are given of how, over time, with the change of the political regime in a particular state, the country's policy towards the phenomenon of dual citizenship changes dramatically.
To sum up, the author suggests that as an effective mechanism for regulating the phenomenon of dual citizenship, which would remain so without taking into account the policies of individual States, the adoption of a single universal framework international legal act associated with regional cooperation of the world's countries on a geographical basis.
Keywords: dual citizenship, citizenship, bipatrides.
For citation: Gagloev O. F. International Legal Development of Dual Citizenship: Historical and Legal Aspect. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 3, pp. 115—129. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.022 (In Russ.)
Andrichenko L. V. Migration Law in the Russian Legal System. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 3, pp. 5—16. DOI: 10.12737/art_2018_3_1. (In Russ.)
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Malichenko V. S.
V. S. Malichenko
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
Abstract. Currently, technology is the main tool for ensuring human well-being. The issues of technology transfer are identified in various international and regional agreements in different areas of international law, what emphasizes the key importance of regulating technology transfer in achieving sustainable development goals. Among main technology dependent SDGs should be mentioned access to water and sanitation, development of renewable energy sources, the creation of safe, sustainable and environmentally sustainable settlements, the transition to rational patterns of consumption and production, ensuring the protection of ecosystems. It is important to mention that the uncontrolled use of technology can cause significant restrictions on the implementation of human rights, especially of vulnerable categories of the population.
Today, at the level of international organizations, as well as in academia, there is no consensus regarding the definition of technology. The article analyzes various approaches to the definition of “technology” and “technology transfer” formed by researchers of various specialties, as well as the position of international organizations regarding the interpretation of these terms. Based on this analysis the author forms a proposal for a unified definition of technology transfer. Guided by the importance of access to technology in achieving almost all of the sustainable development goals, the author analyzes the main stages of improving the regulation of technology transfer in the activities of international and regional organizations. Special attention is paid to the issue of correlation of state interests, transnational corporations and the individual in the implementation of standards in the field of protection of intellectual property rights in the context of expanding access to technology. The article assesses the impact of TRIPS flexible mechanisms, as well as the provisions of bilateral trade agreements on the creation of favorable conditions for the exchange of technologies. Focusing on the problem of access to technology in the provision of medical and social assistance, the author analyzes the correlation between the right to the highest attainable standard of health and the right to access the achievements of the scientific congress in international and regional agreements.
Keywords: technology transfer, the right to health, sustainable development, human security.
For citation: Malichenko V. S. The Role of International Legal Regulation of Technology Transfer in Ensuring Human Security. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 3, pp. 130—146. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.023 (In Russ.)
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Abashidze A. Kh., Malichenko V. S. Compulsory licensing mechanism under international and national law. Vestnik Rossiiskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Seriya: Yuridicheskie nauki = RUDN Journal of Law, 2019, vol. 23, no. 1. (In Russ.)
Abashidze A. Kh., Malichenko V. S. Ensuring Access to Medicines during the Development of Intellectual Property Rights Protection Mechanisms. Sovremennoe pravo, 2013, no. 7. (In Russ.)
Abashidze A. Kh., Malichenko V. S. Expanding access to medicines in frame of the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications. Evraziyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2017, no. 5. (In Russ.)
Abashidze A. Kh., Malichenko V. S. The Activities of International Organizations on the Ensuring of a Universal Access to Medicine in the conditions of the Development of Mechanisms protecting Intellectual Property Rights. Moskovskiy zhurnal mezhdunarodnogo prava, 2017, no. 2 (106). (In Russ.)
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Inkina M. V.
M. V. Inkina
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
Abstract. The article analyzes the evolution of international legal approaches to the problem of combating corruption and their impact on administrative and legal approaches to combating corruption in Russia, including through the implementation of some international conventions.
The purpose of the work is to analyze the changes that have occurred in these approaches in a brief but extremely eventful eventful period that lasted from about the beginning of the 1990s to the mid-2000s. During this period, the first generation of international legal approaches to countering corruption, in the form of conventions of various international intergovernmental organizations, was massively formed at the regional and international levels. By the end of this period, a basic macro-approach to countering corruption was formed through increased transparency of potentially corrupt situations, processes and procedures.
The task is to compile a systematic picture of the existing international legal approaches to the problem of combating corruption developed by international intergovernmental organizations and to establish how the ratification of some international conventions and the implementation of their approaches and measures in administrative law of the Russian Federation affected the anticorruption sphere of the administrative legal field.
The method of comparative analysis of international legal approaches to reducing the risks of corruption by increasing the transparency of corruption-related processes and phenomena cited in the UN Convention against Corruption, and a number of administrative legal approaches to reducing the risks of corruption introduced in Russia, reveals that a number of measures (although in fairness, we note that one of them was introduced before the ratification of the Convention).
It should be noted that none of the reviewed Conventions is based on an assessment of corruption risks. At the present time, the importance of conducting a systematic assessment of corruption risks and identifying, for example, the most corruption-related functions of a state body, is increasingly being viewed as a necessary basis for developing any anti-corruption program, since it allows it to be prioritized more clearly and more rationally.
Keywords: corruption risks, anti-corruption, Inter-American Convention against Corruption, OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, Criminal Law Convention on Corruption, Civil Law Convention on Corruption, African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption, United Nations Convention against Corruption.
For citation: Inkina M. V. International Legal Approaches to Combating Corruption and Their Implementation in the Russian Administrative Law. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 3, pp. 147—162. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.024 (In Russ.)
Abed M. G. T., Davoodi M. H. R. Corruption, Structural Reforms, and Economic Performance in the Transition Economies. International Monetary Fund, 2000. 47 p.
Andrichenko L. V., Nikitina E. E., Spektor E. I. Establishing the system of prohibitions and limitations, as well as obligations with a view to combating corruption. Counteraction Corruption: New Challenges. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva. Moscow, 2018. Pp. 219—233. (In Russ.)
Anti-Corruption Standards of The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development and Their Implementation in the Russian Federation. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva, A. V. Fedorov. Moscow, 2015. 296 p. (In Russ.)
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Johnston M. Corruption, Contention and Reform: The power of Deep Democratization. Cambridge, 2014, 296 p.
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Kashirkina A. A., Tiunov O. I. International law in counteraction corruption. Corruption nature, types, counteraction. Ed. by T. Y. Khabrieva. Moscow, 2014. Pp. 74—92. (In Russ.)
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Khabrieva T. Y. Legal Problems of Implementation of International Anti—Corruption Conventions. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2011, no. 4, pp. 16—27. (In Russ.)
Legal Framework for Implementation of Anti-Corruption Conventions. Ed. by O. I. Tiunov, A. Y. Kapustin. 2nd ed. Moscow, 2015.
Methodology for Tracking Influence of Undertaken Anticorruption Measures on Elimination of Corruption Causes and Conditions, its Expansion. Correlation Between Corruption Causes and Conditions and Anticorruption Measures. Ed. by V. N. Yuzhakov, A. M. Tsirin. Moscow, 2016. Pp. 88—95. (In Russ.)
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Golik Yu. V.
Yu. V. Golik
Moscow Academy of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, Moscow 125080, Russian Federation
Borisov V. N.
V. N. Borisov
Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation
Abstract. The review is dedicated to the Inaugural Global Conference “2019 HCCH Judgments Convention: Global Enforcement of Civil and Commercial Judgments” held on September 9, 2019 in Hong Kong. The review provides an assessment of the provisions of the 2019 Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil or Commercial matters, reflected in the speeches of speakers at the Conference. The importance of the Convention for the further development of cross-border commerce as an important stage on the path to creating a predictable and effective regulation of the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments on a global scale is noted. According to the developers of the Convention, who also took part in the work of the Conference, even now, before its entry into force, it can influence the practice of recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments of different countries as a standard reflecting the current level of legal regulation. The importance of discussing the issue of possible participation in the Convention for Russia is emphasized, since in our country the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments is allowed only if there is an international agreement providing for such recognition and enforcement.
Keywords: 2019 Hague Judgments Convention, recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments, international civil procedure.
For citation: Borisov V. N. 2019 Hague Judjments Convention: Global Recognition and Enforcement of Civil and Commercial Judgments (Review of the International Conference Held in Hong Kong on September 9, 2019). Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2020, no. 3, pp. 166—172. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2020.027 (In Russ.)
Publications of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation