Contents # 5/2019

■ Administrative Law. Financial Law. Information Law



Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.1

The article is devoted to the study of a relatively new institution in the system of civil service of the Russian Federation — the institution of rotation of civil servants. The author analyzes the legal basis of the institution of rotation, its goals, principles, rotational positions of the civil service, the frequency and conditions of its application. The author refers to the comparative legal method of research, analyzing the international legal sources of the rotation institute and the foreign experience of personnel rotation on the example of the states-republics of the former Soviet Union, as well as China and the Kingdom of Japan.
The legal institution of rotation in the system of civil service of the Russian Federation is constituted by legal norms regulating service relationships that are formed in the process of appointing a civil servant, replacing a civil service position included in the list of civil service positions for which rotation is envisaged (hereinafter referred to as the rotational position, the list of rotational positions) to other positions of the civil service with regard to the level of qualification, vocational education and state service experience or professional work in the same public authority or in another public body.
The origins of the Russian legislation on the rotation of public civil servants undoubtedly originate from the international anticorruption acts. They pay much attention to the issues of control and responsibility of officials, preventing conflicts of interest, ensuring transparency and openness of government, etc.
The article analyzes the documents of the United Nations, the EU, the OECD, GRECO and other international organizations containing recommendations on how to move (rotate) public servants as an effective means of preventing and controlling the behavior of servants. In order to discover the rational experience of the organization and legal support of rotation in the civil service system, the article analyzes the legislative basis of the rotation of civil servants in the states-republics of the former USSR — Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Ukraine. The experience of rotation in the civil service system of the People's Republic of China and the Kingdom of Japan is studied in detail.
For the first time, a personnel analysis was conducted on the content of the institution of rotation of the civil service in the Russian Federation. In the legal structure of the institution of rotation of civil servants, the author highlights the legal basis, the goals of rotation (organizational and motivational); the principles that must be observed when appointing civil servants to other civil service positions included in the list of positions subject to rotation; rotational positions for which civil servants are to be rotated in accordance with the law; types of rotation — the author believes that the current legislation provides for only one type of rotation — horizontal; periods of rotation and the possibility of their adjustment; terms of rotation — mutual requirements of the representative of the employer and the civil servant, which must be met when he is appointed to another position in the civil service in the course of rotation.
In conclusion, the article identifies topical issues of further improvement of the institution of rotation in the system of state civil service in the Russian Federation.

institute of rotation, state civil service, civil servant, state body, rotational position of civil service, rotation mechanisms, international legal basis of rotation, state-republics of the former USSR, People's Republic of China, Japan.

For citation
Nozdrachev A.F. Institute of Rotation in the System of State Civil Service. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 5, pp. 5—22. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.1


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Gersh M. V. Personnel rotation. Otdel kadrov kommercheskoy organizatsii, 2013, no. 12, pp. 20—26. (In Russ.)

Kalinin G. I. Rotation of civil servants. The gaps. The questions. Legal problems of implementation. Gosudarstvennaya vlast i mestnoe samoupravlenie, 2013, no. 10. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y., Tiunov O. I., Kashepov V. P. et al. Legal mechanisms of the implementation of the anti-corruption conventions. Ed. by O. I. Tiunov. Moscow, 2012. 288 p. (In Russ.)

Kiper N., Yakub I. Rotation mechanism in the public service (based on the materials of the people’s Republic of China and Japan). Administrarea publică, 2016, no. 4, pp. 60—67. (In Russ.)

Kovtkov D. I. Rotation of civil servants. Zakonodatelstvo i ekonomika, 2016, no. 9. (In Russ.)

Murashkina A. S. Development of the institution of rotation in the civil service of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Analytical portal “Branches of Law”. Available at: http://xn----7sbbaj7auwnffhk.xn--p1ai/article/24406. (In Russ.)

Naryshkin S. E., Khabrieva T. Y. Evaluation Mechanism of Anti-Corruption Standards of GRECO (legal comparative research). Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2011, no. 3, pp. 4—10. (In Russ.)

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Nozdrachev A. F. Civil service: a textbook for the training of civil servants. Moscow, 1999. 592 p. (In Russ.)

Presnyakov M. V. Priority directions of formation of personnel of the state civil service. Grazhdanin i pravo, 2011, no. 8. (In Russ.)

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Solodov V. V., Mikhaylova Ye. V. Rotation as a mechanism for increasing the effectiveness of the law enforcement service of the Russian Federation. E-journal. Public Administration, iss. 22, 2010, March. (In Russ.)

Soroko A. Mechanisms of personnel rotation. Kadrovik. Kadrovyy menedzhment (upravlenie personalom), 2012, no. 8. (In Russ.)

Terekhin A. M. Rotation of Federal public civil servants: separate defects of lawmaking and problems of law enforcement, ways of their decision. Law in the Armed Forces. Voenno-pravovoe obozrenie, 2016, no. 5. (In Russ.)

Tikhomirov Yu. A. The impact of digitalization on the competence of Federal Executive bodies. Zakony Rossii: opyt, analiz, praktika, 2018, no. 12. (In Russ.)

Tsirin A. M., Truntsevskiy Yu. V., Sevalnev V. V. Assessment of corruption risks in Federal Executive bodies. Moscow, 2019. 112 p. (In Russ.)

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N. G. DORONINA, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

N. G. SEMILYUTINA, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.2

Initially financial market was an instrument for the financial resources mobilization in the areas connected with high degree of risks. Financial market always attracted speculative activities that allowed fast enrichment of speculators. So the financial market regulation developed as a contr-action between stat-regulation aimed at restriction of speculative ambitions of marketparticipants and market-participants tending to escape or overcome regulative limitations and prohibitions. The financial market that appeared in England initially was the market-place for speculative transactions of stock-joggers. Lately it transported to the North-American colonies where its speculative characteristics increased. The market participants were ready and tended to use all the achievements of science and technologies in their market operations. The need to attract additional finance fast and use of technological achievements contributed much to the increase of the amounts and volume of financial operations on New York Stock Exchange. In the absence of the effective state control it lead to the Crash of October 1929 and started the Great Depression. The 1929 events resulted in the formulating of the financial markets legislation and principles that affected legislation of the other countries e.g. EC. Gradual denial of some of the principles increased speculative ambitions on the market. These ambitions were connected with the so called “financial instruments” that appeared due to the information (computer) technologies. The lack of the due control over the market of the derivative instruments lead to the global financial crisis of 2008 and consequent modification of the legislation in the USA as well as EC that increased the state control over the market.
At present market participants use various types of information platforms. It affords to attract capital by means of such instruments as block-chain (including various forms of crypto-currencies). Such situation may lead to mass violation of investors and consumers rights in the absence of the mechanism guaranteeing transparency of operations.
Universal character of information technologies and their further development assist to the their commercial use in various areas, e.g. biology. The development of the researches in genetics demonstrate certain likeness of the approaches and directions of the regulation.

e-commerce, state regulation, financial markets, bio-markets, bio-information, international standards of regulation, UNCITRAL.

For citation
Doronina N.G., Semilyutina N.G. Legal Problems of e-Commerce Within the International Financial Market. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 5, pp. 23—41. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.2


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Galbraith J. K. The Great Crash 1929. Minsk, 2009. (In Russ.)

Genkin A., Mikheev A. Blockchain: how it works and what future waits us. Moscow, 2018. (In Russ.)

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■ International and Integration Law. European Law



D. I. DEDOV, European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg, France

Kh. I. HAJIYEV, V. S. CHERENKOVA, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

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V. Yu. LUKYANOVA, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

A. V. PAVLUSHKIN, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.3

The article examines the legal technologies that assess the effectiveness of the regulations in the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union: legal monitoring studies and assessment of regulatory impact.
For achieving the given aim, various methods, such as general scientific (analysis and synthesis, generalization, dialectic) and special scientific (comparative jurisprudence; formal-logical, law-technological analysis) were used.
The passage examines provisions of normative legal acts that secure the order of legal monitoring studies, as well as the authorities of the participants of this direction in public administration. The theoretical and normative basis of legal monitoring organization of studies is discussed. The assessment of the regulatory impact of the legislations and their projects is seen as a part of the legal monitoring studies. The authors analyze the chief directions of legal monitoring studies that are done by the Eurasian Economic Union member states officials. It is noted that in the implementation of the regulatory impact assessment should monitor the interstate instruments on which this assessment was carried out. In this case, legal monitoring studies give an ability to evaluate the compliance of consequences and aims of legal regulations, that were put in the basis during the adaptation of legal requirements, as well as the quality of the regulatory impact assessment procedures performed on the stage of the development and adoption of normative acts.
The authors give the recommendations and suggestions considering the optimization of legal monitoring studies mechanism and regulatory impact assessment in the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union.

Eurasian Economic Union, Eurasian Economic Commission, regulatory impact assessment, legal monitoring.

For citation
Lukyanova V.Yu., Pavlushkin A.V. New Legal Technologies in the States Participating in the Eurasian Economic Union. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 5, pp. 49—64. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.3


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■ Countering Corruption



Bálint MAGYAR, Financial Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary

Bálint MADLOVICS, Financial Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.4

This paper aims at proposing new ways for corruption research, doing away with the presumption of corruption being a deviance or “failure” of the government. Building on the findings of several projects we conducted in the post-communist region, we draw up a typology with four ideal types of corruption: 1) free market corruption, where private actors bribe lower-level public administrators for preferential treatment; 2) bottom-up state capture, where private actors bribe or blackmail higher-level political actors for larger gains; 3) top-down state capture, where it is a local political actor who forms a patronal network and captures the part of the state belonging to him; and 4) the criminal state, where corruption is monopolized by the head of state, creating a single-pyramid patronal network and operating the state as a criminal organization. We provide several aspects of analysis by which these types can be analytically divided, and then we propose an empirical research agenda for the coexistence of different corruption types in a polity (we conceptualize such a coexistence as a “criminal ecosystem”). Particularly, we elaborate on the criminal state and its possible attitudes toward unauthorized illegality, that is, the lower-level corruption of actors outside the singlepyramid network. In the end, the paper offers various research questions that are to be explored in highly patronalistic countries in the post-communist region and beyond.

corruption, criminal state, typology, research, post-communism.

For citation
Magyar B., Madlovics B. Criminal State and the Criminal Ecosystem: New Aspects for Empirical Corruption Research. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 5, pp. 65—78. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.4


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Offe C. 2004. Political Corruption: Conceptual and Practical Issues. Building a Trustworthy State in Post-Socialist Transition. Ed. by J. Kornai, S. Rose-Ackerman, 77—99. Political Evolution and Institutional Change. Palgrave Macmillan US.

Schabert T. 1989. Boston Politics: The Creativity of Power. Walter de Gruyter.

Scheppele K. L. 2018. Autocratic Legalism. University of Chicago Law Review 85 (2): 545—583.

Sharafutdinova G. 2010. Political Consequences of Crony Capitalism inside Russia. University of Notre Dame Press Notre Dame, IN.

TI 2018a. Corruption Perceptions Index 2017 — FAQ. Transparency International. Available at:

TI 2018b. Corruption Perceptions Index 2017. Transparency International. Available at:

TI. 2017. “Corruption Perceptions Index 2016 — Hungary Still in Decline”. Transparency International. Available at:

Tilly Ch. 2005. Trust and Rule. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Uberti L. J. 2016. Can Institutional Reforms Reduce Corruption? Economic Theory and Patron—Client Politics in Developing Countries. Development and Change 47 (2): 317—45.

Weber M. 1949. The Methodology of the Social Sciences. Illinois: The Free Press of Glengoe.

Wedeman A. 2018. Does China Fit the Model? Journal of Democracy 29 (1): 86—95.

Zhu Jiangnan. 2017. Corruption Networks in China: An Institutional Analysis. In Routledge Handbook of Corruption in Asia. Ed. by Ting Gong, Ian Scott, 27—41. Abingdon, Oxford, UK: Routledge.

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■ Civil Law. Entrepreneurial Law. Family Law. Private International Law



Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.5

This article analyzes the relation between European and national legal norms regulating transactions in remote access on the example of legislation of Czech Republic and Slovakia. In this regard, approaches of Slovak and Czech legislators to the form of civil transactions, in particular, the legal recognition of the electronic form of transactions in civil codes and other laws are compared. Attention is drawn to the validity criteria of electronic transactions established in the legislation of the two countries. At the same time, new EU regulations concerning the problems of identification and increasing confidence in electronic transactions are being investigated, as well as ways of incorporating these regulations into Czech and Slovak legislation. The article focuses on electronic commerce, the problems associated with concluding contracts of sale in electronic form. In this regard, regulation by the Czech and Slovak civil codes or special laws of consumer contracts made in the electronic form or out of commercial premises is under consideration. The article considers measures aimed at protecting the rights of consumers in electronic transactions. In particular, the special requirements are analyzed to the content of the contract with the consumer, which are concluded in electronic form. We are talking about the seller's obligations to provide information on goods or services, as its non-performance may be the basis for the consumer to recess from the contract. In this connection, additional consumer rights are considered as weak parties to such a contract. The problem of dispute resolution related to the improper execution of electronic transactions in the field of trade in goods and services is also affected. Provisions of private international law are given which determine the place of consideration and applicable law in disputes with trans-boundary character. Besides, there is the possibility of alternative resolution of such disputes under European law, as well as the adoption of similar law in Slovakia.

electronic commerce, electronic transaction, private right, electronic form, electronic signature, identification, contract, consumer rights, European Union Law, EU Regulation, Law, Civil Code, information, alternative dispute resolution.

For citation
Sakovich O.M. Legislative Regulation of Electronic Transactions in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 5, pp. 79—91. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.5


Contracts in Civil Law of Foreign Countries. Moscow, 2018. 336 p. (In Russ.)

Halásová Z., Gregušová D. Regulation eIDAS and the Slovak Trusted Services Act. Available at: (In Slovak)

Sakovich O. M. Experience of Codification of Private Law in Czech Republic. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2012, no. 5, pp. 34—39 (In Russ.)

Suchoza J. Open Problems of Recodification of the Private Law in the Slovak Republic Pravo, Trade, Economy III. Zbornik vedeckych prac. Kosice, 2013. Pp. 388—409. (In Slovak)

Suchoza J., Husár J. et al. Commercial law. Bratislava, 2009. 980 p. (In Slovak)

The contract as a general legal value. The contract as a general legal value. Moscow, 2018. 380 p. (In Russ.)

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Maardu High School, Maardu 74112, Estonia

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.6

The article notes the interest in using the term “public” in the Russian Federation as applied to legal entities, while the corresponding to Estonian experience for comparison. In the Russian Federation this term developed towards two matters — in the direction of legal entities and institutions of public sector and legal entities of the private sector, specifically public joint stock companies. Unlike this in the Republic of Estonia the term “public” is strictly assigned to public sector. Attention is drawn to the fact that in the Republic of Estonia there is an entire doctrine of separating legal entities to public law and private law. It is noted that the central idea of this doctrine dates back to Roman law. The structural analysis of the doctrine is carried out on three types of public legal entities: the state, local self-governments and "other" public legal entities. The strengths and weaknesses of both doctrines themselves and application practices based on legal acts of the Republic of Estonia are analyzed. The main advantage of the doctrine under consideration is the strict separation of private and public spheres in society in general and legislation in particular. It is noted that the practical application of the doctrine is hardly perfect. Thus the legislator's actions result in emerging a certain “gray zone” between the private and public spheres, which has not been left unattended by Estonian researchers. The main drawbacks of the doctrine are its incompleteness, which is manifested primarily in the problem of determining the time when the legal personality of public legal entities, starting from the Estonian state, is cumbersome, requiring a separate law for the emergence of a new public legal entity and numerous enforcement problems . At the end of the article, conclusions are proposed.

public, public law, legal entity, legal capacity of legal entities, state responsibility, autonomy, local self-government, Estonia (Estonian Republic).

For citation
Seredenko S.N. Doctrine of Public Legal Entities in the Estonian Republic. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 5, pp. 92—107. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.6


Bratus S. N. Legal entities in Soviet civil law. Moscow, 1947. 362 p. (In Russ.)

Butusova N. V. Constitutional and legal status of the Russian state. Dr. diss. Moscow, 2006. 389 p. (In Russ.)

Chirkin V. Е. Legal entity of public law. Moscow, 2007. 352 p. (In Russ.)

Civil Law. Ed. by A. P. Sergeev, Yu. K. Tolstoy. Moscow, 2006. 776 p. (In Russ.)

Fedorov A. V. International Legal Regulation of Issues of Criminal Liability of Legal Persons. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2015, no. 3. (In Russ.)

Gavrilyuk O. A., Bulatova K. A., Lebedeva T. P. et al. University autonomy and university teachers academic freedom in modern Russia. Vestnik Krasnoyarskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta im. V. P. Astafeva, 2014, no. 4, pp. 182—186. (In Russ.)

Ivanov A. Ye. Internally created business reputation of a company as a contingent asset. Mezhdunarodnyy bukhgalterskiy uchet, 2012, no. 26, pp. 28—33. (In Russ.)

Laaring M. Analysis of the need to amend the State Liability Act. Tallinn, 2009. 68 p. (In Estonian)

Mushinskiy V. O. Civil Law Basics. Moscow, 1995. 208 p. (In Russ.)

Myalksoo L. Illegal Annexation and State Continuity: The Case of the Incorporation of the Baltic States by the USSR. Tartu, 2005. 399 p. (In Russ.)

Narits R. The Encyclopedia of Law. Tallinn, 2004. 253 p. (In Estonian)

Pilving I. State liability. Juridica, 1999, no 8, pp. 382—389. (In Estonian)

Rumyantsev F. A. Organizational unity as a sign of a legal entity. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2012. 171 p. (In Russ.)

Schneider H. State and society from the theoretical-methodological perspective. Juridica, 1997, no. 10, pp. 509—518. (In Estonian)

Schneider H. Theoretical issues related to the state. Juridica, 1998, no. 7, pp. 350—361 (In Estonian)

Slepnev A. V. Personality of the state. Vestnik Akademii ekonomicheskoy bezopasnosti MVD Rossii, 2009, no. 2, pp. 142—147. (In Russ.)

Study: less than 30% of non-Estonians trust NATO. Available at: (In Russ.)

The Constitution and the Constitutional Assembly: a Compilation. Ed. by V. Peep. Tallinn, 1997. 1296 p. (In Estonian)

The Story of the Passing Years. Ed. by B. P. Adrianova-Peretts. 2nd ed. St. Petersburg, 1996. 668 p. (In Russ.)

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National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Moscow 101000, Russian Federation

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.7

At the present stage, it is obviously necessary to protect the rights and legitimate interests of a group of individuals. Such institutions facilitate access to justice, streamline the judicial procedure and provide an opportunity to effectively protect their violated rights to a large number of individuals affected by the actions of a single defendant. At the same time, Russian legislation has not yet found an optimal and effective model for the institute of class action. The implementation of this institute into the Commercial Procedural Code of the Russian Federation did not ensure their wide practical applicability: for example, in the first half of 2018 only 18 lawsuits were filed to protect the rights of a group of individuals. At the same time, drafting law that introduces the institute of class actions also in a civil process continues. These circumstances provoke interest in foreign experience, in particular, the experience of states where the institute of class action works effectively. In the framework of this article, it is proposed to consider a mechanism for protecting collective interests in Brazil, which has been successfully operating for a long time. The article systematizes the constant problems of collective claims in Russia, summarizes the experience of Brazilian regulation and compares theoretical approaches to collective claims in Russia and Brazil. In the conclusion proposals are made on possible ways to improve Russian legislation regarding the regulation of class actions, also by means of using certain elements of the Brazilian regulation.

class action, collective action, diffuse rights, collective rights, homogeneous individual rights, res judicata.

For citation
Shaikhutdinova A.I. Group (Collective) Suits in Civil Proceedings of Russia and Brazil: Comparative Legal Study. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 5, pp. 108—124. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.7


Abanina A. Yu. Procedural complicity and class action in accordance with the Arbitrazh procedure code of the RF: similarity and difference. Arbitrazhnyy i grazhdanskiy protsess, 2011, no. 1, pp. 17—19. (In Russ.)

Abelha M. Public civil action and the environment. Rio de Janeiro, 2004. 336 p. (In Portuguese).

Abolonin G. O. Class actions in Russian state arbitration procedure — perspectives of development. Arbitrazhnyy i grazhdanskiy protsess, 2011, no. 3, pp. 11—15. (In Russ.)

Abolonin G. O. Mass claims. Moscow, 2011. (In Russ.).

Abolonin G. O. Practical application of class actions in some countries of the world. Vestnik grazhdanskogo protsessa, 2015, no. 4, 207 p. (In Russ.)

Alekhina S. A., Tumanov D. A. Problems of groups’ protection in arbitrazh procedure. Zakony Rossii: opyt, analiz, praktika, 2010, no. 1, pp. 38—43 (In Russ.)

Arbitrazh procedure. Ed. by M. K. Treushnikov. Moscow, 2017. 736 p. (In Russ.)

Arbitrazh procedure. Ed. by S. V. Nikitin. Moscow, 2017. 328 p. (In Russ.)

Baranov S. Yu. Class actions in civil and administrative procedure of the Russian Federation. Vestnik grazhdanskogo protsessa, 2016, no. 1. (In Russ.)

Bashlakov-Nikolaev I. V. Civil liability in the field of competition protection: the system of private and class actions. Zakony Rossii: opyt, analiz, praktika, 2013, no. 7, pp. 75—82. (In Russ.)

Bataeva N. S. Enter Institute class action. Rossiyskaya yustitsi, 1998, no. 10, pp. 43—44. (In Russ.)

Bataeva N. S. Judicial protection of the rights and interests of an indefinite group of persons. Cand. diss. Moscow, 1998. 164 p. (In Russ.)

Borisov M. S. Theoretical and practical problems of legal force of a court decision. Cand. diss. Saratov, 2010. 28 p. (In Russ.)

Caldeira A. Procedural aspects of collective demands. Sao Paulo, 2006.

Cappelletti M. Governmental and Private Advocates for the Public Interest in Civil Litigation: A Comparative Study. Michigan Law Review, 1979, pp. 793—884.

Cappelletti M. Protection of collective and group interests in Civil proceedings. Revue internationale de droit compare, 1975, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 571—597. (In French)

Cappelletti M., Garth B. Finding an Appropriate Compromise: A Comparative Study of Individualistic Models and Group Rights in Civil Procedure. Civil Justice Quarterly, 1983. 510 p.

Chernyy D. S., Khizunova A. N., Rusetskiy P. K. Class action in Russia: “second chance” on the Concept. Vestnik grazhdanskogo protsessa, 2015, no. 1. (In Russ.)

Commentary to the Code of Arbitrazh procedure of the Russian Federation. Ed. by V. V. Yarkov. 3rd ed. Moscow, 2011. 1152 p. (In Russ.)

Commentary to the Code of Arbitrazh procedure of the Russian Federation. Ed. by P. V. Krasheninnikov. Moscow, 2013. 958 p. (In Russ.)

Cooper E. H. Class-Action Advice in the Form of Questions. Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law, 2001, vol. 11, no. 2.

Cunha A. M. da. The evolution of collective actions in Brazil. Revista de Processo, 1995, no. 77, pp. 224—235. (In Portuguese)

Gidi A. P. Class Actions in Brazil — A Model for Civil Law Countries. American Journal of Comparative Law, 2003, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 311—408. University of Houston Law Center. No. 2006-A-11.

Gidi A. P. Group actions and “collective Amparo” in Brazil. The protection of diffuse, collective and homogeneous individual rights. Constitutional Procedural Law, 2001. (In Spanish)

Gidi A. P. Judged Thing and Litispendence in Collective Actions. Sao Paulo, 1995. Pp. 73—74. (In Portuguese).

Goncalves A. G., Pochmann L. Incident of Resolution of Repetitive Demands (IRDR) and Repetitive Appeals in the New Brazilian Civil Procedure Code. Available at:

Grinover A. P. Judged Thing and Litispendence in Collective Actions. 1979. (In Portuguese)

Grinover A. P. New Trends in Standing and Res Judicata in Collective Suits. General Report — Civil Law. Direito proessual comparado. Rio de Janeiro, 2007. 308 p.

Kaplan B. A prefatory note. Boston College Law Review, 1969, vol. 10, iss. 3.

Kolesov P. P. Class actions in the USA. Moscow, 2004. 101 p. (In Russ.)

Lenza P. General theory of public civil action. Sao Paulo, 2003. 447 p. (In Portuguese)

Maleshin D. Ya. Features of the Russian type of civil procedure. Works of the faculty of law of MSU. Moscow, 2008. Pp. 92—97. (In. Russ.)

Mazzilli H. N. The defence of diffuse rights in Juızo. Sao Paulo, 2001. (In Portuguese)

Mendes A. G. de C. Collective actions: in comparative and national law. Colecao Temas Atuais de Direito Processual Civil, 2002, vol. 4. (In Portuguese)

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Moreira B. A Legitimac ao para a Defesa two ‘diffuse interesses’ not Direito Brasileiro, Themes of Process Directorate. Terceira Series. São Paolo, 1984. (In Portuguese)

Nery J. N., Nery R. M. Commented code of Civil Procedure and extravagant civil procedural legislation in force. 6th ed. Sao Paulo, 2002. (In Portuguese)

Oliveira J. R, Waldemar M. Judicial protection of collective interests. Revista de Processo, 1984, no. 33, pp. 7—25. (In Portuguese)

Osakwe K. Class action in the modern American civil law. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2003, no. 3, pp. 137—147. (In Russ.)

Rozhkova M. A. Improvement of the procedure for consideration of cases on disputes related to business or other economic activity, management organization, membership or participation in the capital of organizations. Korporatsii i uchrezhdeniya. Ed. by M. A. Rozhkova. Moscow, 2007. Pp. 267—337. (In Russ.)

Skobelev V. P. Legal force of first instance judicial decisions in the civil procedure. Cand. diss. Minsk, 2005. 228 p. (In Russ.)

Streltsova Ye. G. On some difficulties of practical application of chapter 282 the Code of Arbitrazh procedure of the Russian Federation. Pravo i politika, 2010, no. 4. (In Russ.)

Taruffo M. Intervento. The Actions for the Protection of Collective Interest. Padova, 1976. (In Italian)

Terekhov V. V. The concept and content of the category “res judicata” in Russian and foreign civil procedure. Rossiyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2014, no. 5, pp. 203—209 (In Russ.)

Vestal A. Procedural Aspects of res judicata / Preclusion. Toledo Law Review, 1969, vol. 1.

Yarkov V. V. Class action in the draft of unified Code of civil procedure. Vestnik ekonomicheskogo pravosudiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 2015, no. 8, pp. 102—103. (In Russ.)

Yarkov V. V. New forms of claim protection of rights in civil procedure (group and indirect claims). Gosudarstvo i pravo, 1999, no. 9, pp. 32—40. (In Russ.)

Yarkov V. V. Protection of the rights of an indefinite group of persons in civil proceedings. Sudebnaya reforma: problemy grazhdanskoy yurisprudentsii. Yekaterinburg, 1996. Pp.73—103. (In Russ.)

Zagaynova S. K. Judicial acts in civil and arbitrazh proceedings: theoretical and applied problems. Dr. diss. Yekaterinburg, 2008. 485 p. (In Russ.).

Zandonai C. D. The effects of res judicata on class actions. Available at: (accessed: 15.04.2018).

Zhuykov V. M. Code of Civil Procedure: procedure of entry into force: poryadok vvedeniya v deystvie. Rossiyskaya yustitsiya, 2003, no. 2, pp. 26. (In Russ.).

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■ Labor Law. Social Welfare Law



Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.8

The article is devoted to the study of institutional and procedural problems related to the resolution of conflicts arising in professional and Olympic sports (high performance sports). Modern sport seeks to isolate itself from state and international legal regulation, to create its own system of corporate standards, the subjects of which are sports organizations and athletes. And to impart stability to the introduced system of corporate rules, international non-governmental organizations leading the world sports and Olympic movement also create their own jurisdictional bodies (arbitration courts, the so-called sports tribunals), with the purpose to resolve disputes between athletes, sports organizations based on corporate rules established by international sports federations and the International Olympic Committee. The head of this system of sports arbitration courts is the Court of Arbitration for Sport in Lausanne (Switzerland), whose status is analyzed in detail in this article.
Special attention in the article was paid to the one of the main problem — the non-consensual, forced, in fact, nature of the extension of the jurisdiction of sports arbitration courts to athletes, often combined with a ban (established in a corporate act — for example, sports federation regulations) to appeal to state courts under threat of lifelong disqualification. Thus, the structures governing world professional and Olympic sports require athletes to give up the exercise of the constitutional right to access to justice. But whether the arbitration clause can be considered valid if the athlete didn't give consent to consideration of the disputes in arbitration court (arbitration) and to a choice of arbitration jurisdiction it, in fact, was compelled? Practice shows that in most cases, when athletes ignore this ban and appeal to the national courts against the decisions of the Court of arbitration for sport in Lausanne, the latter make "political" decisions that take into account the interests of the leading forces in the world sports movement. How stable is the jurisdictional system in the world of "big" sport and how long it can continue to work in the current configuration is the main question raised in this article.

arbitration for sport, sports law, arbitration clause, right to access to justice.

For citation
Peshin N.L. Status and Jurisdiction of the Court of Arbitration for Sport in Lausanne. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 5, pp. 125—139. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.8


Blackshaw I. CAS 92/A/63 Gundel v FEI. Leading Cases in Sports Law. Ed. by J. Anderson. Hague, 2013. 367 p.

Mavromati D. The Legality of an Arbitration Agreement in Favour of CAS Under German Civil and Competition Law — The Pechstein Ruling of the German Federal Tribunal (BGH) of 7 June 2016. Available at:

Nafziger J. A. R., Ross S. F. Handbook on International Sports Law. Chettenham; Northampton, 2011. 584 p.

Pashorina-Nichols V. Is the court of arbitration for sport really arbitration? LLM research paper Laws 521 international arbitration and dispute settlement, 2015. 1-74. Available at: (accessed 26.05.2019).

Stolyarov V. I. Social Problems of Modern Sport and Olympic Movement (Humanistic and Dialectical Analysis). Moscow, 2015. 940 p. (In Russ.)

The Moscow City Court Partially Refused to Recognize in Russia the Decision of the Court of Arbitration for Sport Against Alexander Zubkov. The Court Did Not Consider the Question of Returning the Medals. Available at: (accessed 26.05.2019). (In Russ.)

Under German Civil and Competition Law. The Pechstein Ruling of the German Federal Tribunal (BGH) of 7 June 2016. Available at: (accessed 26.05.2019).

Yurlov S. Sports Arbitration: Certain Issues of Theory and Practice. Available at: http://xn----7sbbaj7auwnffhk.xn--p1ai/article/24225 (accessed 26.05.2019). (In Russ.)

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N. B. KRYSENKOVA, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

T. I. CHURSINA, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.9

The article presents approaches to the legal regulation of genomic researches and its results in different foreign countries. Due to the fact that genetic research is a new phenomenon, especially for the law, not all states have a clear system of regulation of such relations, there is no uniform position of legislators on the admissibility of genetic research in different countries. In this regard, the study of foreign experience in the formation and development of legislation in the field of genomics is interesting for the formation of the development concept of Russian legislation on genomic research.
The aim of the study is to identify areas related to genomic research that are regulated in the law of countries such as Belgium, Italy, Spain, Israel, India, Saudi Arabia and New Zealand. The authors chose such countries due to the opportunity to study the experience of States with different legal systems, traditions, culture, level of development in terms of the formation of legislation on the human genome and genetic research in General.
The study applied the methods of scientific knowledge, synthesis, comparative legal method, etc.
Conclusion: there is no unified approach to the formation of legislation on genomic research in mentioned countries. Some states adhere to the concept of enshrining all norms relevant to research on living organisms in a single legal instrument (e.g. Saudi Arabia, Spain), while others do not have an integrated approach to legal regulation (India, New Zealand). The range of regulated issues is also diverse.

genetic researches, legal regulation, foreign countries, genome, ethics, genomics, Belgium, Italy, Spain, Israel, India, Saudi Arabia and New Zealand, biobanks, gene.

For citation
Krysenkova N.B., Chursina T.I. Legal Regulation of Genetic Researches in Foreign Countries. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 5, pp. 140—153. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.9


Aggarwal Sh., Phadke Sh. R. Medical genetics and Genomic medicine in India: current status and opportunities ahead. Molecular Genetics and Genomic Medicine, 2015, vol. 3, iss. 3.

Bogdanovskaya I. Yu. Mixed Jurisdictions as an Object of Comparative Law. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2017, no. 6, pp. 5—11. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. Main Vectors and Problems of Development of Social Legislation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2014, no. 8, pp. 5—15. (In Russ.)

Markhgeym M. V., Lukyanchenko V. V. “Editing” of human DNA: necessity or infringement of constitutional rights? Nauka i obrazovanie: khozyaystvo i ekonomika; predprinimatelstvo; pravo i upravlenie, 2019, no. 1, pp. 60—63.

Salagay O. O. Biomedicine in European Union Law. In Romanovskiy G. B., Tarusina N. N., Mokhov A. A. et al. Biomedical law in Russia and abroad. Moscow, 2015. 364 p. (In Russ.)

Vasileva L. N. Biotechnology and fundamental human rights: vectors and limits of legal regulation. Right in the age of biotechnology: sbornik materialov student conf. 2018. (In Russ.)

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■ Materials of the Venice Comission of the Council of Europe



University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11000, Republic of Serbia

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.10

Each territorial change that is reflected in the annexation of one state to another by the creation of a new international entity or the dissolution of already existing states carries with it a number of consequences of a different kind. Due to its location and diverse national composition, the Balkans has been a place of turbulent events throughout history. Over the last hundred years, more than ten states have been created, transformed and ceased to exist in this territory. Following the tendency for the unification of all South Slavic peoples, which was done by the formation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918, the last three decades have been characterized by the reverse trends that have led to constant fragmentations and separations. Dissolution, whether peaceful or not, as a side effect always leaves some unresolved issues behind. Often it may take a long time for some of these issues, which by their nature can be very delicate, come up. It is also not the rare case that, for various political reasons, states, by relying on entirely non-traditional means, try to tear down every link with their past and history. The international community should be a pillar of stability and respond in situations where such actions by a particular state clearly go in the opposite direction from
established European standards and democratic principles. In this paper, the author will analyze the new Draft Law on Freedom of Religion or Beliefs and Legal Status of Religious Communities that was established by the Government of Montenegro on May 17, 2019 and will point out its deficiencies and gaps particularly from the perspective of international law and jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights.

confiscation of the property, religious communities, European Convention on Human Rights, European Court of Human Rights, the Venice Commission.

For citation
Prelić M. Legal Analysis of the New Legislative Initiative Regarding Religious Communities in Montenegro. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 5, pp. 154—163. DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.5.10


Djukanovic D. "Идентитетска питања“ и линије унутрашњих подела у Црној Гори. [“Identity Issues” and Internal Division Lines in Montenegro]. Međunarodni Problemi = International Problems, 2014, no. 3-4, pp. 395—422.

Erdeljanovic J. Стара Црна Gора — етничка прошлост и формирање црногорских племена [Old Montenegro — Ethnic Past and Formation of Montenegrin Tribes]. Serbian Royal Academy, 1926.

Farkas L., O'Farrell O. Reversing the burden of proof: Practical dilemmas at the European and national level. EU publication, 2015.

Milosavljevic B. Народ, држава и нација (Анализа основних појмова наше савремене политичке терминологије) [The People, State and Nation (Analysis of the Basic Concepts of Our Contemporary Political Terminology)]. Luča, 1995.

Mole N., Kamber K., Liaki V. Ка делотворнијој примени Европске конвенције за заштиту људских права на националном нивоу — Водич за кључна начела и појмове Конвенције и њихову примену у домаћим судовима [Towards a More Effective Implementation of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights at National Level — A Guide to the Convention's Key Principles and Concepts and their Application in Domestic Courts]. The Aire Centar (Advice on Individual Rights in Europe), 2018.

Murdoch J. Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion. A guide to the implementation of Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Human rights handbooks, 2008, no. 9, 66 p.

Randjelovic D. Стицање својине одржајем [Acquisition of property by adverse possession]. Pravne teme = Legal issues, 2014, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 26—40.

Reljanovic M. Специфичности доказивања мобинга у парничном поступку [The specificities of proving mobbing in civil proceedings]. Analitika — Center for Social research, 2015.

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