Contents # 4/2019

■ State and Law in Modern World: Problems of Theory and History



Belarusian State University, Minsk 220030, Republic of Belarus

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.1

The article analyzes the rule-making activities of the executive authorities — the Government, ministries, and state committees, local executive and administrative bodies. The system of executive power, the legislative basis for its functioning are presented, attention is focused on the types of normative acts adopted by these bodies. Suggestions are made to improve the activities of executive bodies. Particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of the Law “On Normative Legal Acts” and appearing in connection with its entry into force innovations in legislation and law enforcement practice.
Legal regulation should be reasonable, based on constitutional principles and norms as standards of modern legal understanding. Such components of the law-making process as the definition of the objectives of the act of legislation, analysis of the state of legal relations, forecasting the consequences of the adoption of a regulatory legal act, legal examination of the act, public and professional discussion of the project, legal monitoring, etc. are designed to promote the reasonableness of legal regulation. Reasonable legal regulation of social relations will be such regulation in which a legitimate result is achieved with the lowest cost of labor and resources.
The legal basis for the standard-setting activities of local government and self-government bodies needs to be improved. In particular, the law should establish the range of subjects of the law-making initiative, whose proposals are subject to mandatory review by the competent authority.
The analysis indicates the presence of problems in explanations, answers in connection with the vagueness of the provisions of the regulations. One of the options for improving the situation could be the adoption of a resolution of the Government of the Republic of Belarus aimed at streamlining the practice of giving clarifications by Executive bodies subordinated to the Government, regulatory legal acts. It could set out a number of fundamental rules to be followed.

executive power, acts of executive power, norm-setting, implementation of acts of executive power.

For citation
Vasilevich G.A. Regulatory Activity of the Executive Power Bodies Under the Legislation of the Republic of Belarus. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 4, pp. 5—16. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.1


Departmental rule-making: theory and practice of application. Ed. by M. A. Lapina, V. A. Baranov. Moscow, 2014. 240 p. (In Russ.)

Glebova N. A. Departmental rule-making. Available at: (accessed 28.04.2019). (In Russ.)

The large explanatory dictionary of the Russian language. Ed. by S. A. Kuznetsov. St. Petersburg, 2000. (In Russ.)

Vasilevich G. A. To the question of improving the draft law “On regulatory legal acts of the Republic of Belarus”. Aktualnye problemy sravnitelnogo pravovedeniya: teoriya i praktika. Vitebsk, 2017. 327 p. (In Russ.)

Vasilevich S. G. On public administration: concept, goals, performance criterias. Problemy upravleniya, 2014, no. 4, pp. 147—151. (In Russ.)

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■ Constitutional Law, Constitutional Litigation, Municipal Law in Comparative Legal Perspective



Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.2

The article analyzes the problems of legal support for the preservation of the cultural heritage of the indigenous minorities of Russia.
In conducting the study, along with general methods of scientific knowledge, special legal methods were used: analysis of terminology, study of the provisions of legislation, international legal acts, generalization of the ideas available in science.
The article considers the main essential characteristics of the concept of “cultural heritage of indigenous peoples”, their regulation in international law. Taking into account the peculiarities of the traditional way of life of small indigenous peoples and the resulting specificity of the approach to defining the rights of these peoples, the article substantiates the proposal on the expediency of enshrining at the level of federal legislation such basic concepts for the protection of the cultural rights of these peoples as the “cultural heritage of small indigenous peoples”, “objects of cultural heritage of small indigenous peoples”. The absence of these normatively fixed concepts complicates the process of identifying the relevant objects and, accordingly, does not allow for a clear definition of the subject of protection.
The article pays special attention to a comparative analysis of the legislation of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation in the field of protection of cultural heritage sites of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation, first of all, it refers to such objects as shrines (sacred places) the existence of folklore, traditions, customs, languages. It justifies the expediency of a broader federal legislative regulation of the powers of state authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and local governments in the field of protection of cultural heritage sites of indigenous peoples of Russia, including those associated with the creation and maintenance of an information base including information on cultural heritage sites of these peoples.

cultural heritage of indigenous peoples, cultural heritage sites, natural heritage sites, sacred (cult) places, customs, indigenous peoples, register of cultural heritage sites of indigenous peoples.

For citation
Andrichenko L.V. Problems of Legal Support for the Preservation of the Cultural Heritage of Indigenous Peoples: International and National Aspects. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 4, pp. 17—32. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.2


Arefev A. L. Languages of the Indigenous Minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East in Educational System: Past and Present. Moscow, 2014. 488 p. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. Modern Problems of Self-Determination of Ethnos. Moscow, 2010. 288 p. (In Russ.)

Kharyuchi S. N., Filant K. G., Antonov I. Yu. Social norms of indigenous peoples of the North of Russia. Rites, customs, rituals, traditions, myths, morality, law. Moscow, 2009. 279 p. (In Russ.)

Kopsergenova A A. Cultural heritage: philosophical aspects of the analysis. Cand. diss. Stavropol, 2008. (In Russ.)

Legal anthropology. Institute of Ethnology and anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences. (In Russ.) Available at:

Mazenkova A. A. Cultural heritage as a self-organizing system. Cand. diss. thesis. Tyumen, 2009. (In Russ.)

Medvedev Ye. V. Cultural values as a subject of state legal regulation. Yuridicheskaya nauchnaya biblioteka izdatelstva “SPARK”. 2004. (In Russ.)

Panfilov A. N. Cultural values and objects of cultural heritage: problem of unification of terms. Part I. Pravo i politika. 2011, no. 2, pp. 293—305. (In Russ.)

Pustogacheva A. F. Current status of teaching and learning native language indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East in the education system of the Russian Federation. Istoriya i pedagogika estestvoznaniya, 2014, no. 2, pp. 41—46. (In Russ.)

Rybak K. Ye. Museum in the normative system (historical and cultural analysis). Dr. diss. thesis. St. Petersburg, 2006. (In Russ.)

The Conservation Value of Sacred Sites of Indigenous Peoples of the Arctic: A Case Study in Northern Russia. Moscow, 2004. (In Russ.)

Tishkov V. A., Novikova N. I., Pivneva Ye. A., Stepanov V. V. Indigenous peoples of the Russian Arctic: history, modern status, perspectives. Available at: (In Russ.)

Vasileva L. N. Legislative regulation of the use of languages in the Russian Federation. Moscow, 2005. 128 p. (In Russ.)

Vasileva L. N. On the ratification by the Russian Federation of the European Charter of regional or minority languages. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2006, no. 4. (In Russ.).

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Bertrand MATHIEU

University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, Paris 75013, France

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.3

This article provides a brief analysis of the provisions raised in the Venice Commission's Opinion on the proposal to revise the Luxembourg Constitution in relation to the challenges and issues faced by modern constitutional law. The current 1868 Luxembourg Constitution is outdated both in its form and content and does not meet modern standards. Therefore the author raises the question on whether to adopt a new constitution or it is enough to amend the current one. Regarding issues of national identity, the article discusses the difference between the national sovereignty principles and the people's sovereignty, as well as the position of foreigners in the constitutional context. The author also raises the question on whether it is worthwhile to constitutionally consolidate the list of fundamental human and civil rights and freedoms, while such a list is already contained in many international documents. Special attention is paid to institutional checks and balances, where the issue of relationships between legislative and executive authorities and the judiciary are evaluated. Assessing institutional issues, the author focuses on the referendum issue, noting a high degree of political authorities' mistrust to the direct democracy instrument. The change in the Parliament's role, whose functions are less of a normative character and reduced to the control of the government, is also emphasized. Separately, the article considers the responsibility issue of cabinet members, while there is a tendency towards weakening political responsibility and toughening criminal responsibility, which is also reflected in the Draft Constitution of Luxembourg. Finally, concerning the judiciary, the need to strengthen the impartiality of the judges and the principle of legal protection is stressed.

Venice Commission, Luxembourg, Grand Duke, Constitution, constitutional amendment, monarchy, liberal democracy, parliamentary system.

For citation
Mathieu B. Revision of the Constitution of Luxembourg. Overview of Current Problems of Constitutional Law. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 4, pp. 33—41. (In French and Russian.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.3

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■ Comparative Researches of Criminal Law, Criminology and Criminal Executive Law



Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.4

Digitization actively penetrates criminal procedure relations, has a significant impact on the formation of evidence in a criminal case. Of particular relevance are researches related to the development of the electronic form of recording, transmission and use of information. There is a need to develop new methods for detecting, fixing and evaluating evidence when committing unlawful acts, primarily involving the use of computer technology.
The purpose of this study is to identify the special role of electronic evidence in the field of criminal proceedings and to develop proposals for improving the current legislation. The objectives of the research are: a) to determine the peculiarities of foreign criminal procedure legislation, which regulates certain procedures and rules for working with electronic evidence; b) to show the position of foreign and Russian procedural scientists regarding the concept and content of electronic evidence; c) to substantiate recommendations for the further development of Russian legislation in the considered field of activity.
The methodological basis of the study was the dialectical method of cognition, the general scientific methods of abstraction, analysis and synthesis, as well as special legal methods (comparative legal, logical and legal, etc.).
The author comes to the conclusion that, at the legislative level, the key principles of the use of digital technologies need to be fixed, expanding the limits of admissibility of evidence; fixing new sources of evidence; the use of digital technologies in making procedurally significant decisions in a criminal case. In the Code of Criminal Procedure, it is advisable to provide for the use of electronic digital documents drawn up by the parties to the defense and the prosecution during the recording of the progress and result of investigative and judicial actions aimed at obtaining the necessary evidentiary information in a criminal case. It should be permissible to provide information in any way that ensures the reliability of its preservation and transmission in electronic form to the appropriate law enforcement agency or an authorized official. In the future, it is necessary to switch to exclusively electronic document circulation in criminal proceedings.

digitalization, criminal justice, electronic evidence, proof, electronic criminal case, the use of electronic information.

For citation
Zaitsev O.A. Features of the Use of Electronic Information as Criminal Evidence: A Comparative-Legal Analysis of Foreign Legislation. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 4, pp. 42—57. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.4


Andreeva O. I., Zaytsev O. A. Problems of use of electronic dokuments in criminal proceedings. Legal problems of strengthening Russian statehood. Tomsk, 2018. Part 79. Pp. 4-17 (In Russ.)

Andreeva O. I., Zaytsev O. A. Prospects for conducting Russian criminal proceedings in electronic format. Ugolovnaya yustitsiya, 2018, no. 12, pp. 57—61. (In Russ.)

Bonner A. T. Traditional and non-traditional means of proof in civil and arbitration proceedings. Moscow, 2015. 624 p. (In Russ.)

Bulgakov A. N. Administrative investigation of offences in the field of road safety. Cand. diss. Krasnodar, 2017. 187 p. (In Russ.)

Burdina Ye. V. Development of Judicial System in Conditions of Information Society. Rossiyskoe pravosudie, 2018, no. 7, pp. 19—33. (In Russ.)

Casey E. Digital Evidence and Computer Crime: Forensic Science, Computer and the Internet. 3rd ed. Baltimore, 2011.

Development of information technologies in criminal proceedings. Ed. by S. V. Zuev. Moscow, 2018. 248 p. (In Russ.)

Dremlyuga R. I. Computer Information as an Target for Illegal Access: Comparative Analysis of the USA and Russian Legislation. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2018, no. 6, pp. 129—133. (In Russ.)

Fundamentals of the theory of electronic evidence. Ed. by S. V. Zuev. Moscow, 2019. 400 p. (In Russ.)

Golovnenkov P., Spitsa N. Code of criminal procedure of the Federal Republic of Germany — Code Of Criminal Procedure (CCP): scientific and practical commentary and translation of the law. Potsdam, 2012. 404 p.

Jilkine V. A. Digital Technologies and the Application of Artificial Intelligence in Finland and in Russia: Comparative Legal Research. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2018, no. 6, pp. 74—78. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y. Law Facing the Challenges of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 9, pp. 5—16. (In Russ.)

Khabrieva T. Y., Chernogor N. N. The Law in the Conditions of Digital Reality. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 85—102. (In Russ.)

Kogamov M. Ch. What is the criminal procedure law and criminal procedure of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Almaty, 2013. 44 p. (In Russ.)

Kuvychkov S. I. Use of information provided in electronic form in criminal cases in evidence. Cand. diss. Nizhny Novgorod, 2016. 273 p. (In Russ.)

Legal space and a person. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov, E. V. Pulyaeva, N. I. Khludeneva. Moscow, 2012. 240 p. (In Russ.)

Moldovan Prosecutor's office began to conduct criminal cases in electronic form. Available at: (In Russ.)

Muratova N. G., Sergeev M. S. Legal regulation of the use of electronic information and electronic media in criminal proceedings: domestic and foreign experience. Moscow, 2019. 264 p. (In Russ.)

Okonenko R. I. Electronic evidence and problems of ensuring the rights of citizens to protection of privacy in criminal proceedings: comparative analysis of the legislation of the United States of America and the Russian Federation. Cand. diss. thesis. Moscow, 2016. 158 p. (In Russ.)

Ovsyannikov D. V. Copying of electronic information as a means of criminal procedure evidence. Cand. diss. Chelyabinsk, 2015. 192 p. (In Russ.)

Pastukhov P. S. Doctrinal model of improvement of criminal procedural evidence in the information society. Moscow, 2015. 352 p. (In Russ.)

Promotion of activities to combat cybercrime, including technical assistance and capacity-building: report of the UN Secretary General. Vienna, 22—26 April 2013. Available at: (In Russ.)

Sergeev M. S. The aim of the research is comparative legal analysis of regulation of applying digital evidences in the US criminal procedure. Vestnik ekonomiki, prava i sotsiologii, 2016, no. 2, pp. 206—212 (In Russ.)

Sokurova E. Zh., Ashirbekova K. B. Criminal case in electronic format. A Constitution: the Embodiment of the Values of the Rule of Law, Civil Society and Modern State: materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. Astana, 2018. Pp. 346—350.

Talapina E. V. Law and Digitalization: New Challenges and Prospects. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 2, pp. 5—17. (In Russ.)

Tukhtasheva U. A. Modernization of criminal proceedings and strengthening of human rights guarantees. Available at: (In Russ.)

Vorozhbit S. P. Electronic evidence in civil and arbitration proceedings. Cand. diss. St. Petersburg, 2011. 235 p. (In Russ.)

Zazulin A. I. Legal and methodological basis for the use of digital information in criminal evidence. Cand. diss. Yekaterinburg, 2018. 251 p. (In Russ.).

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■ Administrative Law, Financial Law, Information Law



Institute of Legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan 101000, Republic of Kazakhstan

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.5

The article is devoted to the analysis of the constitutional nature of administrative justice: the Republic of Kazakhstan and the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union. It analyzes the characteristics of constitutional regulation of administrative justice in the Republic of Kazakhstan and in foreign countries. The quality of the state is associated with many democratic institutions, procedures, regimes, orders, and with democracy in general. A state, that in its Constitution defines the highest values of a person, his/her life, rights and freedoms, undoubtedly undertakes efforts aimed at the implementation of the constitutional norms. This is all the more important when it comes to the methods and processes of protecting the rights and freedoms of citizens, ensuring that state bodies' executive power without violations and without negative consequences for society, citizens and the state itself. The concept of administrative justice is analyzed in this article. It is substantiated that this concept should be viewed in a broad sense, namely, as an order of public governing, different in its substantive and legal nature from private legal relations. It is proved that administrative justice encompasses as administrative court proceedings and all forms of activity of government bodies exercising public administration through administrative actions. The author analyzes the forms of activity of government bodies, and also considers issues of judicial control. It has been established that the organizational, procedural, legal and regulatory component of administrative justice seems to be quite heterogeneous. Despite the differences and the specifics of the functions performed by state and judicial bodies, the goal of administrative justice is to uphold the public interests embodied in the public will for the common good.
It is concluded that administrative justice as a way of organizing administrative legal protection has a dual meaning: subjective and objective, and the importance of administrative justice is to regulate social processes in society by performing the functions assigned to the bodies that form its system.

administrative justice, administrative manufacture, administrative legal proceedings, court, human rights, Eurasian Economic Union.

For citation
Sarpekov R.K. Constitutional Nature of the Administrative Justice (On the Example of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union). Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 4, pp. 58—75. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.5


Ablaeva E. B. Administrativnaya yustitsiya kak element administrativnoy reformy v Respublike Kazakhstan: ego stanovlenie i razvitie. Problemy ekonomiki i yuridicheskoy praktiki, 2017, no. 5.

Administrativnaya otvetstvennost v Respublike Kazakhstan. Almaty, 2005.

Administrativnoe pravo zarubezhnykh stran. Ed. by V. Ya. Kikot, G. A. Vasilevich, N. V. Rumyantsev. Moscow, 2012.

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Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.6

The key direction of Russia's foreign and economic policy is the development of integration in the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union (hereinafter — EAEU). The Treaty on the EAEU effectively forms communitarian law that regulates various aspects of economic activity and, above all, aims at removing technical barriers for trade.
The implementation of a coordinated policy in the field of technical regulation requires its harmonization in those aspects that have not found a unified regulation at the supranational level. Protection of the rights and legitimate interests of citizens and States from the negative consequences of the circulation of unsafe products on the territory of the EAEU, as well as counterfeit products, actualizes the issue of strengthening responsibility in this area, and above all — administrative responsibility.
The purpose of the study is to identify the development directions of legislation on administrative responsibility in the field of technical regulation in the EAEU Member States within the integration.
The objectives of the study is to analyze the international legal acts of the EAEU and the EAEU Member States, regulating the principles and procedure for bringing to administrative responsibility violation of the requirements stated in technical regulations.
To achieve the goals and objectives of the study general (analysis, synthesis, generalization, analogy, etc.) and special research methods are used: formal legal, comparative legal methods, a method of interpretation of law.
According to the results of the study the author comes to the conclusion that taking into account the existing unification in the field of technical regulation at the supranational level and in order to harmonize the responsibility for violation of the requirements stated in technical regulations, it is advisable to define the concept, signs and types of basic violations in this area, subjects of responsibility, special compositions of administrative offenses for certain types of products, if there are any, and the interaction order between authorities of the EAEU Member States in the consideration of such cases of administrative offenses.

technical regulations, mandatory requirements, products, Eurasian Economic Union, administrative responsibility, administrative offense, subject of responsibility.

For citation
Kalmykova A.V. Administrative Responsibility in the Field of Technical Regulation in the Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 4, pp. 76—92. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.6


Belykh V. S., Panova A. S. Tekhnicheskoe regulirovanie v Rossii: sovremennoe sostoyanie i perspektivy razvitiya. Rossiyskiy yuridicheskiy zhurnal, 2017, no. 5.

Kotlyarov Yu. V. Administrativnaya otvetstvennost v sfere tekhnicheskogo regulirovaniya: aktualnye voprosy pravoprimenitelnoy praktiki i puti ee sovershenstvovaniya. Administrativnoe i munitsipalnoe pravo, 2016, no. 2.

Lukyanova I. N. Peresmotr sudebnykh aktov: dvizhenie k pravovoy opredelennosti ili dvizhenie po spirali pravovoy neopredelennosti? Zakony Rossii: opyt, analiz, praktika, 2014, no. 7.

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Pankova O. V. Rassmotrenie v sudakh obshchey yurisdiktsii del ob administrativnykh pravonarusheniyakh. Ed. by O. A. Yegorova. Moscow, 2014. 440 p.

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Pshenichnov M. A. K voprosu o kontseptsii garmonizatsii rossiyskogo zakonodatelstva v kontekste mezhdunarodno-pravovykh standartov. Mezhdunarodnoe publichnoe i chastnoe pravo, 2007, no. 3.

Tekhnicheskoe regulirovanie: pravovye aspekty. Ed. by Yu. A. Tikhomirov, V. Yu. Salamatov. Moscow, 2010.

Tereshchenko L. K., Tikhomirov Yu. A., Khabrieva T. Y. Concept of legal maintenance of technical regulation. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2006, no. 9, pp. 3—17. (In Russ.)

Tikhomirov Yu. A. Kurs sravnitelnogo pravovedeniya. Moscow, 1996.

Vystuplenie pervogo zamestitelya Predsedatelya Komiteta RSPP po tekhnicheskomu regulirovaniyu, standartizatsii i otsenke sootvetstviya A. N. Lotsmanova “Falsifikat — ugroza ekonomiki stran YeAES”. Available at:

Yevraziyskiy ekonomicheskiy soyuz: tsifry i fakty. Biblioteka evraziyskoy integratsii. Available at:

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■ Civil Law, Entrepreneurial Law, Family Law, Private International Law


Helmut HEISS

University of Zurich, Zurich CH-8006, Switzerland

Editorial Board is grateful to Eleven International Publishing and personally to editor Selma Hoedt for the opportunity to translate and publish this article. Original article “Proportionality in the New German Insurance Contract Act 2008” by prof. H. Heiss was published in the Erasmus Law Review, 2012, vol. 5, iss. 2. Available at:

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.7

In 2008, the German legislature enacted a completely revised Insurance Contract Act, in which a new rule of proportionality replaced the former all-or-nothing principle for questions of liability. This article outlines the reasons of this shift and the impact of the rule of proportionality on insurers and policyholders. It also addresses the criticisms raised regarding the new system as well as some of the technical problems arising in its application, for example with regard to placement of the burden of proof. This is followed by a short discussion of the rule as it is traditionally applied in Switzerland and as it is adopted in the Principles of
European Insurance Contract Law (PEICL).

all-or-nothing-principle, discharge of the insurer, insurance, PEICL, proportionality rule, proportionate reduction, Swiss Insurance Contract Act.

For citation
Heiss H. Proportionality in the New German Insurance Contract Act 2008. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 4, pp. 92—101. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.7


Armbrüster C. 'Abstufungen der Leistungsfreiheit bei grob fahrlässigem Verhalten des VN', Versicherungsrecht, at 676 (2003).

Basedow J., Birds J., Clarke M. A., Cousy H., Heiss H. (eds.). Principles of European Insurance Contract Law (PEICL) (2009).

Baumann H. 'Quotenregelung contra Alles-oder-Nichts-Prinzip im Versicherungsfall — Überlegungen zur Reform des § 61 VVG', Recht und Schaden, at 9 (2005) de lege ferenda to § 81.

Feifel M. C. Die Quotelung bei Obliegenheitsverletzungen nach § 28 VVG 2008 (2011), at 135.

Felsch J. 'Kommentar zu § 28 VVG', in W. Rüffer, D. Halbach and P. Schimikowski (eds.), Versicherungsvertragsgesetz, Handkommentar (2009), at § 28, paras. 58, 76.

Felsch J. 'Neuregelung von Obliegenheiten und Gefahrerhöhung', Recht und Schaden, at 493 (2007); M. Nugel, 'Das neue VVG — Quotenbildung bei der Leistungskürzung wegen grober Fahrlässigkeit', 61 Monatsschrift für Deutsches Recht, at 26 (2007).

Grote J., Schneider C. 'VVG 2008: Das neue Versicherungsvertragsrecht, Auswirkungen für gewerbliche Versicherungen', Betriebs-Berater, at 2695 (2007).

Günther C. D., Spielmann S. 'Vollständige und teilweise Leistungsfreiheit nach dem VVG 2008 am Beispiel der Sachversicherung (Teil 2)', Recht und Schaden, at 185 (2008).

Heiss H. 'Das Quotensystem im neuen VVG', in C. Brömmelmeyer et al. (eds.), Versicherungswissenschaftliche Studien no. 42 (2012) 191, at 193 et seq.

Heiss H. 'Kommentar zu § 28 VVG', in H. Baumann, R. M. Beckmann, K. Johannsen and R. Johannsen (eds.), Bruck/Möller, Versicherungsvertragsgesetz, Grosskommentar, vol. 1, Einführung, § 1—32 (2008), at § 28, para. 187.

Hess R., Burmann M. 'Die Quote bei grob fahrlässiger Obliegenheitsverletzung', Neue Zeitschrift für Verkehrsrecht, at 10 (2009).

Langheid T. 'Die Reform des Versicherungsvertragsgesetzes', Neue Juristische Wochenschrift, С. 3669 (2007).

Looschelders D. 'Quotelung bei Obliegenheitsverletzungen: Alles, Nichts oder die Hälfte', 98 Zeitschrift für die gesamte Versicherungswissenschaft, 1, at 28 (2009).

Looschelders D. 'Schuldhafte Herbeiführung des Versicherungsfalls nach der VVG-Reform', Versicherungsrecht, at 6 (2008).

Moosbauer C. Das quotale Leistungskürzungsrecht des Versicherers bei der grob fahrlässigen Verletzung einer vertraglichen Obliegenheit nach § 28 II S 2 VVG (2011), at 86.

Mönnich U. 'Vom “Alles-oder-Nichts-Prinzip” zur Quotelung der Versicherungsleistung — Rechtsvergleichende Überlegungen zur Reform des Versicherungsvertragsrechts in der Schweiz und in Deutschland', in A. K. Schnyder (ed.), Totalrevision des VVG (2012 in print).

Nugel M. 'Quotenbildung bei einer Leistungskürzung nach dem VVG', Monatsschrift für Deutsches Recht, at 1321 (2008).

Pohlmann P. 'Kommentar zu § 28 VVG', in D. Looschelders and P. Pohlmann (eds.), VVG-Kommentar (2010), at § 28, para. 123.

Prölss J. 'Das versicherungsrechtliche Alles-oder-Nichts-Prinzip in der Reformdiskussion — Allgemeine Überlegungen zum Zwischenbericht der Kommission zur Reform des Versicherungsvertragsrechts vom 30.5.2002', Versicherungsrecht, at 671 (2003).

Prölss J. 'Kommentar zu § 28 VVG', in E. Prölss and A. Martin (eds.), Prölss/Martin, Versicherungsvertragsgesetz, Kommentar zu VVG, EGVVG mit Rom I-VO, VVG-InfoV und Vermittlerrecht sowie Kommentierung wichtiger Versicherungsbedingungen (2010), at § 28, para. 138.

Rixecker R. 'Quotelung bei Obliegenheitsverletzung: Alles, Nichts oder die Hälfte', 98 Zeitschrift für die gesamte Versicherungswissenschaft, 1, at 6 (2009).

Rixecker R. 'VVG 2008 — Eine Einführung; II. Obliegenheiten vor dem Versicherungsfall', Zeitschrift für Schadensrecht, at 73 (2007).

Rolfs C.'Kommentar zu § 21 VVG', in H. Baumann, R. M. Beckmann, K. Johannsen and R. Johannsen (eds.), Bruck/Möller, Versicherungsvertragsgesetz, Grosskommentar, vol. 1, Einführung, § 1—32 (2008), et § 21, para. 40.

Römer W. 'Zu ausgewählten Problemen der VVG-Reform nach dem Referentenentwurf vom 13. März 2006 (Teil I)', Versicherungsrecht, at 741 (2006).

Schwintowski H. P. 'Kommentar zu § 28 VVG', in H. P. Schwintowski и C. Brömmelmeyer (eds.), Praxiskommentar zum Versicherungsvertragsrecht (2008), at § 28, para. 94.

Wandt M. 'Kommentar zu § 28 VVG', in T. Langheid and M. Wandt (eds.), Münchener Kommentar zum Versicherungsvertragsgesetz, vol. 1, Systematische Darstellungen, Erläuterungen zum EGVVG, § 1—99 VVG (2010), at § 28, para. 301.

Weidner U., Schuster H. 'Quotelung von Entschädigungsleistungen bei grober Fahrlässigkeit des VN in der Sachversicherung nach neuem VVG', Recht und Schaden, at 364 (2007).

Zwischenbericht der Kommission zur Reform des Versicherungsvertragsrechts vom 30. Mai 2002, section B.6.

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Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.8

The article deals with the problems of legal regulation of electronic document circulation by the laws of states, the federal laws and uniform laws. The ratio of the Federal law "Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act" 2000 and uniform laws enacted by all or most states highlight the difficulties faced by legislators in trying to regulate booming electronic commerce. The development of the Internet and electronic means of communication has contributed to the possibility of using electronic documents in transactions in commercial activities, registration of property rights, and certification of rights for certain types of
negotiable securities, transactions in the stock market. Taking into account that civil relations are regulated by the legislation of the states, there were questions of determining the place and time of conclusion of contracts in open information systems. The solution of these issues is necessary for the application of the legislation of a state. Not all states have passed laws governing electronic commerce, and laws have not established uniform rules, document requirements, or terminology. For the purposes of unification of the rules of electronic document management, the Uniform Law Commission drafted for adoption by the states Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, 1999, which was adopted by all states except three of them. In addition, several more uniform laws have been adopted to regulate electronic document flow throughout the United States. The article examines the correlation between the norms of uniform laws and federal law and the extent to which this legislation has managed to form a single legal space in the field of electronic document management throughout the United States. Along with other issues, the article deals with the provisions on the protection of consumer rights when using the electronic form of contracts and other documents.

uniform law, electronic commerce, electronic form, electronic document, contract, consumer rights, consent, federal law, information.

For citation
Solovieva S.V. Issues of Legal Regulation of Civil Documents' Electronic Circulation in the USA Legislation at the Federal and State Levels. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel'stva i sravnitel'nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 4, pp. 102—115. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.8


Dogovory v grazhdanskom prave zarubezhnykh stran. Moscow, 2018.

Semilyutina N. G. Globalization of International Economic Relations, Information Technologies and Move to a New Level of Diffusion in Law. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2015, no. 5, pp. 134—141. (In Russ.)

Semilyutina N. G., Astashova V. S., Ternovaya O. A. et al. Sovremennye tendentsii razvitiya dogovornogo prava v otdelnykh zarubezhnykh gosudarstvakh. Dogovor kak obshchepravovaya tsennost. Moscow, 2018.

Shelepina Ye. A. Pravovye aspekty elektronnogo dokumentooborota. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2007.

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■ International and Integration Law. European Law



Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.9

Termination and suspension of international treaties are governed by both international and domestic law. Under international law, a party may withdraw from or denounce an international treaty, either in accordance with the provisions of the treaty or with the consent of all its parties. If the treaty does not contain withdrawal provisions, the party may denounce or withdraw from it by giving 12 months’ notice, provided that the parties intended to allow withdrawal, or if the right to do so is implied in the treaty. International law, however, does not specify how government decisions on termination of treaties or the output of them can be made. Only the domestic law can determine which organ of a state has the power to terminate international treaties.
The article highlights two models of state decision-making on termination and suspension of international treaties. The essence of the first model is that the termination and suspension of international treaties are carried out in the same order in which they were concluded (Vietnam, Russia, and Ukraine). The President of Russia has the right to suspend an international treaty; the decision on the consent to be bound was made in the form of a Federal law, with the introduction of the relevant bill. In the Netherlands, provisions relating to the procedure for concluding treaties apply mutatis mutandis (as amended) to the procedure for terminating them. The Constitution of South Africa does not contain rules governing the termination of treaties. However, the High Court of South Africa ruled that from a constitutional point of view it is unacceptable that the national executive body can independently, without parliamentary approval, terminate the international treaty. The second model is based on the fact that the termination and suspension of international treaties are regarded as the prerogative of the executive, even if the treaty was concluded with the consent of the Parliament (Germany, Norway, Switzerland). In the UK, both the conclusion and termination of international treaties are traditionally considered part of the crown’s prerogative. However, the UK Supreme Court ruled that the government could only decide to withdraw from the European Union after prior approval by Parliament, as the European Communities Act 1972 is constitutional. The US Constitution does not contain rules governing the termination of international treaties. Courts in the US are considering the termination of treaties as «not subject to review in the courts political question.» The absence of legal norms leads to disputes between the legislature and the executive. The discussion is mainly about the power of the US President to decide alone on the termination of international agreements.

termination (the exit, the denunciation) of the international treaty, suspension, material breach, fundamental change of circumstances, the distribution of powers, parliamentary approval, prerogative of the executive, «not subject to review in the courts political question», sole authority, «mirror principle».

For citation
Osminin B.I. The Legal Models of Termination and Suspension of International Treaties by States. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2019, no. 4, pp. 116—133. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.12737/jflcl.2019.4.9


Amirfar C., Singh A. The Trump Administration and the “Unmaking” of International Agreements. Harvard International Law Journal, 2018, vol. 59.

Aust A. Handbook of International Law. Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Bodansky D., Spiro P. Executive Agreements+. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 2016, vol. 49.

Bradley C. Exiting Congressional-Executive Agreements. Duke Law Journal, 2018, vol. 67.

Bradley C. Treaty Termination and Historical Gloss. Texas Law Review, 2014, vol. 92.

Bradley C., Goldsmith J. Presidential Control over International Law. Harvard Law Review, 2018, vol. 131.

Frowein J., Hahn M. The Participation of Parliament in the Treaty Process in the Federal Republic of Germany — Europe. Chicago-Kent Law Review, 1991, vol. 67.

Hathaway O. Treaties’ End: The Past, Present, and Future of International Lawmaking in the United States. The Yale Law Journal, 2008, vol. 117.

Helfer L. Terminating Treaties. The Oxford Guide to Treaties. Ed. by D. Hollis. Oxford, 2012.

Koh H. Presidential Power to Terminate International Agreements. The Yale Law Journal Forum, 2018, November 12.

Lukashuk I. I. Sovremennoe pravo mezhdunarodnykh dogovorov. Vol. II: Deystvie mezhdunarodnykh dogovorov. Moscow, 2006.

Mulligan St. Withdrawal from International Agreements: Legal Framework, the Paris Agreement, and the Iran Nuclear Agreement. Congressional Research Service Report, 2018. May 4.

Muñor J. Ecuador’s 2017 Termination of Treaties: How Not to Exit the International Investment Regime. Brazilian Journal of International Law, 2017, vol. 14.

Murrill B. U. S. Withdrawal from Free Trade Agreements: Frequently Asked Legal Questions. Congressional Research Service Report, 2016, September 7.

Osminin B. I. Procedure of the Conclusion of Treaties and Other International Agreements by the United States of America. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2011, no. 2, pp. 109—118. (In Russ.)

Peck A. Withdrawing from NAFTA. The Georgetown Law Journal, 2019, vol. 107.

Slovar mezhdunarodnogo prava. Moscow, 2014.

Talalaev A. N. Venskaya konventsiya o prave mezhdunarodnykh dogovorov. Kommentariy. Moscow, 1997.

Trachtman J. Power to Terminate U. S. Trade Agreements: The Presidential Dormant Commerce Clause Versus an Historical Gloss Half Empty. (October 15, 2017). Available at:

Wolfrum R., Hestermeyer H., Vöneky S. The Reception of International Law in the German Legal Order: An Introduction. In E. de Wet, H. Hestermeyer, R. Wolfrum. The Implementation of International Law in Germany and South Africa. Pretoria University Law Press. 2015.

Woolaver H. Domestic and International Limitations on Treaty Withdrawal: Lessons from South Africa’s Attempted Departure from the International Criminal Court. Symposium on Treaty Exit at Interface of Domestic and International Law. AJIL Unbound, 2018, vol. 111.

Young A. Brexit, Miller, and the Regulation of Treaty Withdrawal: One Step Forward, Two Steps Back? Symposium on Treaty Exit at Interface of Domestic and International Law. AJIL Unbound, 2018, vol. 111.

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■ Materials of the Venice Comission of the Council of Europe



■ Legal Events



Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

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Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow 117218, Russian Federation

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