Contents # 1/2019

■ Legal Events

VIII INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF COMPARATIVE LAW  Pdf 16

Welcome Words by T. Y. Khabrieva, V. I. Matvienko, S. V. Lavrov, V. V. Volodin

CONSTITUTION OF RUSSIA AS A COMPARATIVE PROJECT (HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE DRAFTING OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION 1993)  Pdf 16

A. I. KOVLER

head of the Center of foreign legislation and comparative law of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences, honored lawyer of the Russian Federation
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
E-mail: kovler@izak.ru

The Constitution of the Russian Federation is a vivid example of a creative application of the comparative method in the constitutional law. During the drafting of the constitutional text in the conditions of an acute political struggle were took into account the principles and norms of international law, in particular of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and of the European Convention on Human Rights, as well as the experience of other countries whose constitutions were adopted in difficult conditions of their history. Besides that the participants of the Constitutional Assembly of 1993 used the method of negation of the practice of the Soviet period in the field of human rights and freedoms.
In the present article a “cuisine” of the drafting to the constitutional text is showed on specific examples, are also given examples of heated discussions on the wording of its articles and of the a search of an “ideal” expression of social needs. The article rejects an attachment of the Russian Constitution to a particular “model”, but indicates some borrowing elements. The drafting and adoption of the Constitution of 1993 stimulated the further constitutional comparative studies not only in Russia, but also in other countries because of its original version of a “constitutional ideal”.

Keywords: Constitution of the Russian Federation, Constitutional Assembly 1993, comparative method, models of Constitution.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.1.1


REFERENCES

Bartole S. Riforme costituzionali nell’Europa Centro-Orientale. Bologna, 1993.

Federativnaya Respublika Germaniya. Konstitutsiya i zakonodatelnye akty. Moscow, 1991.

Khabrieva T. Ya. Konstitutsionnaya reforma v sovremennom mire. Moscow, 2016.

Konstitutsii stran — chlenov SNG. Yerevan, 1997.

Konstitutsionnoe soveshchanie. Stenogrammy. Materialy. Dokumenty. 29 aprelya—10 noyabrya 1993 goda. Moscow, 1995—1996, vol. 1—20.

Kovler A. I. Antropologiya prava. Moscow, 2002.

Kovler A. I. Konstitutsionnye osnovy novoy rossiyskoy gosudarstvennosti. Stanovlenie novoy rossiyskoy gosudarstvennosti. Moscow, 1996.

Kovler A. La nouvelle Constitution russe: ombres et lumières. Revue des Sciences Politiques, 1995, no. 33.

Kovler A. I. Frantsuzskaya model dlya rossiyskoy Konstitutsii? (o skhodstve konstitutsiy — realnom i mnimom). Konstitutsionnoe soveshchanie. Informatsionnyy byulleten, 1994, no. 4.

Kovler A. I. Kakoe prezidentstvo legitimno v Rossii? Etika uspekha, iss. 5. Kredo i kodeks vlasti. Tyumen; Moscow, 1995.

Kovler A. I. Superprezident ili koloss na glinyanykh nogakh? Konstitutsionnoe pravo: vostochnoevropeyskoe obozrenie, 1993/1994, no. 4—5.

Nersesyants V. S. Obshchaya teoriya prava i gosudarstva. Moscow, 2000.

Obolonskiy A. V. Chelovek i vlast. Perekrestki rossiyskoy istorii. Moscow, 2002.

Obolonskiy A. V. Drama rossiyskoy politicheskoy istorii: sistema protiv lichnosti. Moscow, 1994.

Ocherki parlamentskogo prava (zarubezhnyy opyt). Moscow, 1993.

Okunkov L. A. Voprosov vnov bolshe, chem otvetov. Nezavisimaya gazeta, 1993, July 29.

Prava cheloveka i sotsialnoe gosudarstvo v Rossii. Ed. by Ye. A. Lukasheva. Moscow, 2013.

Sakharov N. A. Institut prezidentstva v sovremennom mire. Moscow, 1994.

Shakhnazarov G. Kh. Napisano: gde nedodumano, gde spisano. Rabochaya tribuna, 1993, December 9.

Sravnitelnoe konstitutsionnoe pravo. Ed. by V. Ye. Chirkin. Moscow, 1996.

Tumanov V. A. Bez novoy Konstitutsii ne budet novogo parlamenta. Izvestiya, 1993, December 9.

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LIBERAL DEMOCRACY: AN IDEAL CONSTITUTIONAL MODEL IN TIMES OF CRISIS  Pdf 16

B. MATHIEU

member of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission of the Council of Europe)

Translated by Ya. I. Lebedeva

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PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN, TAKING INTO ACCOUNT FOREIGN EXPERIENCE  Pdf 16

R. K. SARPEKOV

director of the Institute of Legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan
8, Мangilik El ave., Astana, Kazakhstan, 010000
E-mail: instzak-kz@mail.ru

The creation of administrative justice sets new goals and objectives for the state. There is a need to form new and modernize existing institutions, to introduce new principles that contribute to updating the legislation in general, the leitmotif of which should be the recognition and implementation of the rights and legitimate interests of citizens and organizations. However, the effectiveness of protecting the rights and legitimate interests of citizens and organizations depends not only on how literate, legitimate and justified are acts of state bodies and the court, but also on how quickly they will be executed. Therefore, the protection of violated rights of citizens and organizations, as the main goal of administrative justice, should not be recognized as effective until judicial acts are executed in a timely manner.
This article aims to attempt to characterize the importance of executive proceedings in administrative law in the Republic of Kazakhstan, its place and role in administrative legislation. The author has conducted a comparative-legal analysis of the legislation of foreign countries, regulating executive proceedings in administrative law, provides statistical data of court practice about challenging government decisions in Kazakhstan. The formation and development of a new for Kazakhstan institute of executive proceedings in administrative law favorably coincided with the adoption of the Administrative Procedure Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, which should fix the conditions and procedure for the enforcement of judicial acts, the quality of which will determine the success of administrative justice in general.

Keywords: administrative justice, public relations, publicly-legal dispute, executive proceedings in administrative law, administrative act.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.1.2


REFERENCES

Starilov Yu. N. Administrativnaya yustitsiya. Teoriya, istoriya, perspektivy [Administrative Justice. Theory, history, prospects]. Moscow, 2001. 304 p.

Vstavskaya I. M., Savchenko S. A. Ispolnitelnoe proizvodstvo [Executive proceedings]. 2nd ed. Moscow, 2010. 232 p.

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COMPARATIVE LAW IN SEARCH OF CONSTITUTIONAL IDEAL (A REVIEW OF THE VIII INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF COMPARATIVE LAW)  Pdf 16

A. I. KOVLER, E. A. FOKIN, V. S. CHERENKOVA, Yu. E. IBRAGIMOVA

A. I. KOVLER, head of the Center of foreign legislation and comparative law of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences

E. A. FOKIN, research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation

V. S. CHERENKOVA, junior research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation

Yu. E. IBRAGIMOVA, junior research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation

This article provides an overview of the VIII International Congress of Comparative Law (Moscow, December 7—8, 2018).

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ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW IN MODERN CONDITIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC AND THE EXPERIENCE OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES (A REVIEW OF THE FIRST BISHKEK INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FORUM)  Pdf 16

B. K. OTOROVA, E. A. GALINOVSKAYA, Zh. N. ARZYMATOV

B. K. OTOROVA, associate professor at the Balasagyn Kyrgyz National University, candidate of legal sciences

E. A. GALINOVSKAYA, leading research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences

Zh. N. ARZYMATOV, chairman of the Association "Lawyers of Kyrgyzstan"

This article provides an overview of the First Bishkek International Legal Forum (Bishkek, July 5—6, 2018).

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■ Constitutional Law, Constitutional Litigation, Municipal Law in Comparative Legal Perspective

ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE OF MIGRATION PROCESSES IN GERMANY AND AUSTRIA  Pdf 16

I. D. YAGOFAROVA

associate professor at the Department of competition law and antitrust regulation of the Ural State University of Economics, candidate of legal sciences, associate professor
66, Vosmogo Marta st., Yekaterinburg, Russia, 620144
E-mail: vaina3@yandex.ru

In the article one of the most urgent processes of the modern world is considered — migration, the volume of which increases significantly every year. The most popular among migrants are European states, which is conditioned by many objective factors, therefore all goals and aspirations, to a greater extent, are aimed at them. The most promising and socially attractive are Germany and Austria, thanks to the high standard of living, social security of the population and convenience of location. The current migration crisis forced states to differently pursue their policy with regard to the newly arrived population, as the influx of migrants began to cause new problems that were not initially so clearly visible.
The aim of the article is to conduct a brief comparative analysis of German and Austrian legislation on migration issues, which also involves solving a number of problems related to the consideration of changes in the legal regulation of migration in these countries.
The methodological basis of the study is a systematic and comparative legal method based on the principles of chronology, historicism and objectivism. Synthesis of generalizing characteristics in solving the problems of migration policies in Germany and Austria helps in the study, which in the future will allow to forecast and use data in Russian legislation to solve similar problems. 
The analysis resulted in generalizing conclusions concerning the definition of similar and distinctive features in the legal regulation of migration processes in the countries under consideration, which allowed us to conclude that the legislation of European countries in the modern period is transformed in the direction of stricter migration policies that limit migration and selective reception of the incoming population.

Keywords: migration, legislation, migration processes, globalization, legal status of refugees, restrictions of rights and freedoms.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.1.3

 

REFERENCES

Ali S. Migration, Incorporation, and Change in an Interconnected World. New York; London, 2015.

Atnashev V. R. Problemy formirovaniya tolerantnosti v sovremennoy Yevrope: mezhdunarodno-pravovoy aspekt. Upravlencheskoe konsultirovanie, 2015, no. 6.

Forsythe D. Human Rights in International Relations. Cambridge, 2006.

Hinrichs W. Ausländische Bevölkerungsgruppen in Deutschland: Integrationschancen: 1985 und 2000. Berlin, 2003.

Ilikova L. E. Migratsionnyy krizis, konets multikulturalizma i rost ksenofobii v Germanii: gipoteza o prichinakh. Upravlenie ustoychivym razvitiem, 2016, no. 3.

Khrishkevich T. G. Regionalnaya disproportsiya FRG v svete migratsionnogo krizisa 2014—2015 gody. Metamorfozy istorii, 2016.

Kollier P. Iskhod. Kak migratsiya izmenyaet nash mir = Exodus. How Migration is Changing Our World. Moscow, 2016.

Maltseva Yu. A. Kontsept “bezhenets” v nemetskikh mediatekstakh. Znak: problemnoe pole mediaobrazovaniya, 2016, no. 5.

Poletaeva M. A. Immigranty v evropeyskom kulturnom protsesse. Opyt FRG. Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo lingvisticheskogo universiteta. Seriya: Gumanitarnye nauki, 2016, no. 2.

Savchenko Ye. O., Moskaleva A. A. Yevropeyskaya bezopasnost segodnya: obshchestvenno-politicheskie problemy i perspektivy. Fundamentalnye i prikladnye issledovaniya v sovremennom mire, 2016, no. 13, vol. 3.

Steiner H. International Human Rights in Context Law, Politics, Morals: text and materials. Oxford, 2000.

Volk A. Ye. Politika multikulturalizma Germanii v usloviyakh nadvigayushcheysya globalnoy nereguliruemoy migratsii. Vestnik sovremennoy nauki, 2015, no. 8.

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SOME ASPECTS OF ORGANIZATION AND HOLDING OF LOCAL ELECTIONS IN NEW ZEALAND  Pdf 16

N. B. KRYSENKOVA

senior research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
E-mail: foreign2@izak.ru

The article is devoted to local elections in New Zealand. The article aimed at the research of New Zealand electoral system, revealing of its specifics and comparison with other electoral systems of the world. The author’s choice of the theme of research is not occasional because the order of conduct of elections in New Zealand is very different in comparison with the other countries. If the procedure of local elections organization in many countries of the world is a power of election commissions, the Election Commission of New Zealand takes part in local elections on the stage of electoral rolls compilation and the organization of local electoral process in this country is a power of Department of Internal Affairs. The author analyses the aspects of legal regulation of local elections in New Zealand, bodies responsible for organization of electoral process at the Department of Internal Affairs and lower level, the procedure of elections as a whole, voting at elections, propaganda, counting of votes and election results as well as offences in the sphere of elections and litigations on the questions of elections results. What’s more, the author makes a brief description of local self-governments formation and functioning in New Zealand.

Keywords: New Zealand, elections, electoral process, election commissions, local self-governments, electoral legislation, Department of Internal Affairs, poll, counting of votes.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.1.4

 

REFERENCES

Kenenova I. P. Reformy izbiratelnykh sistem kak vestniki obnovleniya politicheskikh tendentsiy [Electoral reforms as backgrounds for political trends changes]. Konstitutsionnoe i munitsipalnoe pravo, 2018, no. 2, pp. 72—78.

Krysenkova N. B. Izbiratelnaya sistema Novoy Zelandii [Electoral System of New Zealand]. Sovremennye izbiratelnye sistemy, iss. 12.

Malta, Novaya Zelandiya [Modern Electoral Systems. Ed. 12. Malta, New Zealand]. V. I. Lafitskiy, N. B. Krysenkova; Ed. by V. I. Lafitskiy, V. I. Lysenko. Moscow, 2017. 304 p.

Pomazanskiy A. Ye. Formy gosudarstvennoy podderzhki politicheskikh partiy i kandidatov na vyborakh v zakonodatelstve zarubezhnykh stran [Forms of state assistance for political parties and candidates due to foreign legislation]. Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel’stva i sravnitel’nogo pravovedeniya = Journal of Foreign Legislation and Comparative Law, 2012, no. 1, pp. 114—120.

Pomazanskiy A. Ye. Otvetstvennost za narushenie poryadka finansirovaniya izbiratelnoy kampanii v zakonodatelstve o vyborakh [Liability for financing of electoral campaign infringements on electoral legislation]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2007, no. 2, pp. 122—129.

Postnikov A. Ye. Mazhoritarnaya i proportsionalnye izbiratelnye sistemy: plyusy i minusy [First-Past-the-Post and Proportional Electoral Systems: positive and negative sides]. Narodnyy deputat, 1993, no. 12, pp. 40—41.

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THE RATIO OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS IN THE FIELD OF FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION: A VALUE FOR CIVIL SOCIETY  Pdf 16

S. I. GEZERDAVA

postgraduate student at the Department of constitutional and administrative law of the Law faculty of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, senior lecturer at the Department of state and law of the Law faculty of the Abkhazian State University
3, Bolshoy Trekhsvyatitelskiy lane, Moscow, Russia, 109028
E-mail: sager25@gmail.com

The article explains the essence of a number of elements of the constitutional status of citizen associations in the Republic of Abkhazia and their key role in the sustainability of the civil society in Abkhazia. The urgency of the topic stems from the need to substantiate firm guarantees for the development of civil society institutions, as well as to confirm the capacity of the Constitution of the Republic to serve as the basis for the formation of such legal status of these organizations that corresponds to their role in a democratic state.
The purpose of this article is to substantiate the development of the legal status of civil society institutions (primarily non-profit organizations) in the direction that corresponds to the meaning prescribed by constitutional provisions, as well as international norms recognized by the Republic of Abkhazia unilaterally. The substance of constitutional rights, freedoms, principles and guarantees, as well as their correlation, are still not sufficiently clarified from the point of view of the approach that overcomes state paternalism. As part of this approach, the article attempts to clarify the correlation between these constitutional categories and the essential characteristics of civil society, without which one cannot recognize its sustainability. In the article considerable attention is paid to the concept of the “freedom of activity of citizen associations” which is not sufficiently explained in literature and which, in our opinion, is no less important for civil society than the right to unite. 
The article offers critical examination of the position of various authors on the question of the limits of the state regulatory impact on civil society. The article argues that the content of the constitutional basis of civil society, first of all, the freedom of associations, sets the framework for the autonomy of civil society, and therefore requires the definition of the limits of state intervention and the relevant parameters for non-profit legislation.

Keywords: the Constitution of the Republic of Abkhazia, the right to association, freedom of activity of citizens’ associations, ideological and political pluralism, non-profit legislation, non-profit organizations, public associations.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.1.5

 

REFERENCES

Bartsits I. N. Gosudarstvennoe (konstitutsionnoe) pravo Respubliki Abkhaziya. [The State (Constitutional) Law of the Republic of Abkhazia]. Moscow, 2009. Vol. 1. 418 p.

Chirkin V. Ye. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo, konstitutsionnye kollektivnye prava i obyazannosti [Civil Society, the Constitutional Collective Rights and Obligations]. Grazhdanin i pravo, 2012, no. 5, pp. 3—16.

Dmitriy Shamba: ispolnitelnaya vlast byla i ostaetsya klyuchevym subektom zakonodatelnoy initsiativy [Dmitry Shamba: the executive branch has been and remains the key subject of legislative initiative]. Available at: http://abkhazinform.com/tochka-zreniya/item/7396-dmitrijshamba-ispolnitelnaya-vlast-byla-i-ostaetsya-klyuchevym-sub-ektom-zakonodatelnoj-initsiativy (accessed 15.08.2018).

Edwards M. Civil Society. Cambridge, 2008. 139 p.

Garton J. The Regulation of Organised Civil Society. Hart Publishing, 2009. 264 p.

Gennadiy Gaguliya otdal svyshe sta porucheniy [Gennady Gagulia gave over a hundred orders]. Available at: https://km-ra.org/index.php/ru/news/item/1184-gennadij-gaguliya-otdal-svyshe-sta-poruchenij (accessed 11.07.2018).

Grazhdanskie svobody i nepravitelstvennye organizatsii v Abkhazii: analiticheskiy doklad Tsentra gumanitarnykh programm [Civil Freedoms and Non-Governmental Organisations in Abkhazia: An Analytical Report of Centre for Humanitarian)]. Ed. by S. I. Gezerdava. Moscow, 2018. 138 p.

Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo kak garantiya politicheskogo dialoga i protivodeystviya ekstremizmu: klyuchevye konstitutsionno-pravovye problemy [Civil Society as a Means to Ensure Political Dialog and Opposition to Extremism: Key Constitutional Law Problems]. Ed. by S. A. Avakyan. Moscow, 2015. 652 p.

International Encyclopedia of Civil Society. Ed. by H. K. Anheier, S. Toepler, R. List. New York, 2010. 1686 p.

MacDonnell V. The Civil Servant’s Role in the Implementation of Constitutional Rights. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 2015, vol. 13, iss. 2, pp. 383—406.

Makbrayd D. Mezhdunarodnoe pravo i sudebnaya praktika v podderzhku grazhdanskogo obshchestva [International Law and Jurisprudence in Support of Civil Society]. Svoboda obedineniya: pravovye i prakticheskie aspekty. Varshava, 2007. 318 p.

Malyy D. A. Konstitutsionnoe pravo na obedinenie v Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Cand. diss. [The Constitutional Right to Association in the Russian Federation]. Saransk, 2001. 191 p.

Nussberger A. Plyuralizm — konstitutsionnaya tsennost [Pluralism — the Constitutional Value]. Sravnitelnoe konstitutsionnoe obozrenie, 2008, no. 6, pp. 89—98.

Rukovodyashchie printsipy po svobode mirnykh sobraniy [Guidelines on Freedom of Peaceful Assembly]. 2nd ed. Varshava, 2011. 194 p.

Rosenblum N. L., Post R. C. Introduction. Civil Society and Government. Ed. by N. L. Rosenblum, R. C. Post. Princeton; New Jersey, 2002. 410 p.

Rumyantsev O. G. Osnovy konstitutsionnogo stroya Rossii (ponyatie, soderzhanie, voprosy stanovleniya) [The Foundations of the Constitutional Order (the concept, content, issues of formation)]. Moscow, 1994. 288 p.

Tikhomirov Yu. A. Grazhdanskoe obshchestvo v fokuse prava [Civil Society in Focus of Law]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2013, no. 10, pp. 35—45.

Zamechaniya k proektu zakona Respubliki Abkhaziya “Ob obshchestvennykh obedineniyakh” [Comments on the draft law of the Republic of Abkhazia “On public associations”]. Available at: http://abkhazinform.com/tochka-zreniya/item/7583-zamechaniya-k-proektuzakona-ob-obshchestvennykh-ob-edineniyakh (accessed 05.08.2018).

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INFLUENCE OF THE FORMING “MIGRANT” LEGAL FAMILIES ON THE LEGAL COUNTERTERRORIST MECHANISM  Pdf 16

D. A. KOSHKINA

applicant at the the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
E-mail: morgenstern03@rambler.ru

The article considers such a new phenomenon as the “migrant” legal families which actually result from great migration and appearance of national, ethnic and religious communities and diasporas in different countries, especially in Europe. Obviously, this fact can generate different negative consequences, including legal collisions appearing during the regulation of public relations either between representatives of different legal families or between communities or diasporas and other legal subjects.
The article attempts to analyze the influence degree of the “migrant” legal families on the international terroristic threat level. Thus, the author notes that in some legal families the moral and religious values are the foundation of the legal culture and legal competence. This can be used to involve persons in terroristic activity. As a result, the author suggests to increase the criminal responsibility measures for committing terroristic crimes and to organize preventive work with communities’ and diasporas’ religious representatives.

Keywords: “migrant” legal families, terrorism, migration, community, diaspora, propaganda.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.1.6

 

REFERENCES

Boriskina O. N. Posledstviya globalizatsii dlya razvitiya natsionalnykh pravovykh sistem: puti i sposoby preodoleniya voznikayushchikh problem [The consequences of globalization for the modern national law systems: ways and methods of overcoming appearing problems]. Istoriya gosudarstva i prava, 2008, no. 17, pp. 6—8.

Bykova Ye. V. Problemy vzaimodeystviya pravovykh sistem na sovremennom etape [The problems of the interaction of law systems on the modern stage]. Mezhdunarodnoe publichnoe i chastnoe pravo, 2008, no. 3, pp. 30—33.

Fedoseeva N. N. Globalizatsiya kak obshchenauchnyy fenomen [Globalization like a general scientific phenomenon]. Mezhdunarodnoe publichnoe i chastnoe pravo, 2009, no. 1, pp. 2—5.

Lukyanova Ye. G., Balytnikov V. V. Protsessy globalizatsii v sfere pravoprimeneniya v Rossii [The process of globalization in the domain of law enforcement]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2006, no. 6, pp. 128—138.

Materialy Chetvertoy ezhegodnoy mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii “Peredvizheniya i konflikty kultur: migranty, diaspora, terrorizm, granitsy” (1—3 sentyabrya 2016 goda, Skope) [The Material of the 4th Annual international conference “Dislocations and Cultural Conflicts: migrations, diaspora, terrorism, borders” (September 1—3, 2016, Skopje)]. Available at: http://www.kon-ferenc.ru/konferenc15_03_16.html.

Tikhomirov Yu. A. Kurs sravnitelnogo pravovedeniya [The course of comparative jurisprudence]. Moscow, 1996. 432 p.

Ustinov V. V. Obvinyaetsya terrorizm [Indictment of Terror]. Moscow, 2002. 416 p.

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■ International and Integration Law

REGULATORY FIXATION VARIABILITY IN THE CONCEPT OF “CULTURAL VALUES” IN THE EEU LEGISLATION  Pdf 16

I. V. MIKHEEVA, A. S. LOGINOVA

I. V. MIKHEEVA, head of the Department of constitutional and administrative law of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, doctor of legal sciences
25/12, Bolshaya Pecherskaya st., Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, 603155
E-mail: irinarap@mail.ru

A. S. LOGINOVA, associate professor at the Department of constitutional and administrative law of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, master of economics, candidate of legal sciences
25/12, Bolshaya Pecherskaya st., Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, 603155
E-mail: aloginova@hse.ru

The national heritage of each state, which includes cultural values, is carefully protected by national legislation. Meanwhile, there is a difference in approaches to the cultural values definition in the EAEU member States’ normative acts, which is aggravated by the interpretation ambiguity of some interstate acts’ provisions. This increases the loss risks for the cultural heritage and weakens customs control during the cultural property movement across the EAEU’s customs border.
In the article there is an analysis of the all EEU member States’ “cultural” legislation in the context of identifying the defining cultural values that fall under the restrictive legal regime. The comparative legal and formal legal methods are used.
Attention is drawn to the unification lack in legislative regulation of the cultural property movement across the EEU’s customs border. It is concluded that it is necessary to introduce terminological uniformity in the national normative formulations that define cultural values, with revising and systematizing these objects’ existing lists in the EEU. To do this, it is mandatory to comply with the legal technique principles: the legislative definitions brevity, wording clarity, the mismatch inadmissibility of concept definitions in different regulations within the same national legislation system.
It is also suggested that, taking into account the technical and legal nuances of the cultural values definition, those falling under the restrictive movement regime across the customs border can be grouped in a single list agreed and approved by the EEU interstate act outside the “Single list of goods to which non-tariff regulation measures are applied in trade with third countries”.

Keywords: cultural values, the Eurasian Economic Union, principles of legal technique, non-tariff regulation measures.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.1.7

 

REFERENCES

Krotov M. I., Muntiyan V. I. Yevraziyskiy ekonomicheskiy soyuz: istoriya, osobennosti, perspektivy [Eurasian Economic Union: History, Features, Prospects]. Upravlencheskoe konsultirovanie, 2015, no. 11, pp. 33—46.

Mikheeva I. V. Okhrana pamyatnikov v Rossiyskoy imperii: problemy pravovogo regulirovaniya (istoriko-pravovoy aspekt) [Monuments Protection in the Russian Empire: Problems of Legal Regulation (Historical and Legal Aspect)]. “Chernye dyry” v rossiyskom zakonodatelstve, 2008, no. 1, pp. 434—436.

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THE UNION STATE ACTS’ IMPLEMENTATION IN THE NATIONAL LEGAL SYSTEMS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS  Pdf 16

A. N. MOROZOV

leading research fellow of the Department of constitutional, administrative, criminal law and international law of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
E-mail: ccla1@izak.ru

The article examines issues related to the implementation of the Union State acts in the national legal systems of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus, based on the international legal and domestic regulatory acts’ analysis.
The purpose of the article is to develop scientifically-based recommendations and proposals for improving the legal mechanisms for the implementation by member states of the Union State acts in the national legal systems of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus.
The article’s tasks are: analyzing provisions of the Treaty on the Establishment of the Union State 1999 regarding the application and implementation of decisions adopted by the Union State’s bodies; analyzing normative legal acts of the Union State’s memberstates affecting the international obligations implementation arising from international treaties and international organizations’ decisions; a comparative legal analysis of the provisions in the Union State Members’ constitutions on the place of international treaties and decisions of international organizations in national legal systems; development of proposals for the legal mechanisms improvement to implement international obligations undertaken in the framework of the Union State.
Among the methods used to prepare the article, it is necessary to highlight: dialectical method, philosophical method, formal logical method, system-structural method, historical method, formal legal method, legal interpretation method, comparative legal method, expert assessment method, method of legal modeling and forecasting.
Based on the study’s results of international legal acts, legislative, subordinate acts of the Union State members and scientific developments, the conclusion formulates proposals to improve Russian legislation in the area of fulfilling international obligations, which source is decisions made by the Union State bodies.

Keywords: Union State, legal system, decisions, bodies, international law, integration.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.1.8

 

REFERENCES

Kashirkina A. A. Yevraziyskiy ekonomicheskiy soyuz: rasshirenie granits i pravovaya realnost [Eurasian Economic Union: Borders Extension and Legal Reality]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2016, no. 11, pp. 160—171.

Morozov A. N. Mezhdunarodno-pravovye i vnutrigosudarstvennye aspekty prisoedineniya Rossii k Konventsii o grazhdansko-pravovoy otvetstvennosti za korruptsiyu [International law and domestic aspects of Russia’s accession to the Civil Law Convention on corruption]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2014, no. 3. pp. 87—95.

Pavlova L. V. Mezhdunarodnoe pravo v pravovoy sisteme gosudarstv [International law in the legal system of states]. Belorusskiy zhurnal mezhdunarodnogo prava i mezhdunarodnykh otnosheniy, 1999, no. 3, pp. 3—9.

Shchukin A. V. Implementatsiya mezhdunarodno-pravovykh obyazatelstv Respubliki Belarus v natsionalnoe zakonodatelstvo [Implementation of international legal obligations of the Republic of Belarus into national legislation]. Vliyanie mezhdunarodnogo prava na natsionalnoe zakonodatelstvo. Materialy zasedaniya Mezhdunarodnoy shkoly-praktikuma molodykh uchenykh-yuristov. Ed. by T. Ya. Khabrieva, Yu. A. Tikhomirov. Moscow, 2007. 486 p.

Tiunov O. I., Kashirkina A. A., Morozov A. N. Status mezhdunarodnykh mezhvedomstvennykh dogovorov Rossiyskoy Federatsii [The status of international interagency treaties of the Russian Federation]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2007, no. 1, pp. 115—127.

Vasilevich G. A. Pravovye akty Soyuznogo gosudarstva i ego subektov: vidy i sootnoshenie s uchetom yuridicheskoy sily [Legal acts of the Union State and its subjects: types and correlation taking into account legal force]. Aktualnye problemy stroitelstva i razvitiya Soyuznogo gosudarstva: materialy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii 13—14 dekabrya 2006 goda. Moscow, 2007. 400 p.

Yatsenko I. S. Formirovanie i razvitie pravovoy sistemy Soyuznogo gosudarstva [Formation and development of the legal system of the Union State]. Aktualnye problemy stroitelstva i razvitiya Soyuznogo gosudarstva: materialy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii 13—14 dekabrya 2006 goda. Moscow, 2007. 400 p.

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■ Civil Law, Entrepreneurial Law, Family Law, Private International Law

THE COMPARATIVE LEGAL ANALYSIS OF NULLITY DEALS WITH SCOPE DEFECT IN RUSSIAN AND GERMAN LAWS  Pdf 16

M. V. SMIRNOVA

LL. M. (Free University of Berlin), leading lawyer, Liebherr-Russland
5, Pervaya Borodinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 121059
E-mail: smirnowa.m.w@gmail.com

In the article the author considers grounds of deal nullity connected with the deal scope in Russian and German laws. Despite the fact that Russian void deals regulation is the closest to German law and the Russian legislator has based exactly upon the German Civil Code regulation by reforming domestic civil law, there are significant differences in the norms’ enforcement that regulates deals nullity with a scope defect in Russia and Germany.
The carried out comparative legal analysis makes it possible to identify common and differing characteristics in the certain elements regulation of nullity deals in Russian and German legislation. Much attention is paid to the prerequisites and conditions consideration for the nullity occurrence in connection with deals’ scope defects in Russian and German laws.
According to the results of the research based both on the legislation norms, doctrinal approaches and law enforcement practice of both countries, the detailed analysis and regulation comparison provided for those invalid deals, which are illegal deals (deals violating legal requirements or other legal acts in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and deals violating the legal prohibition in the German Civil Code), antisocial deals (deals concluded with the purpose contrary to the principles of public order and morality in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and deals contrary to good morals in the German Civil Code), the simulated deals in German law and the simulated and sham deals in the Russian law. The author reveals differences in the void deals regulation of Russia and Germany, consisting both in different prerequisites and conditions necessary for the deal nullity occurrence, and in completely different regulation of invalid deals’ certain elements (for example, bondage deals). The results of the research also show that German law enforcement practice is characterized by a more active use of evaluation criteria in deals nullity determination in comparison with a Russian court practice.

Keywords: grounds of nullity, German law, nullity deal, contrary to law, contrary to the principles of public order and morality, simulated deal, sham deal, scope defect.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.1.9

 

REFERENCES

Braginskiy M. I., Vitryanskiy V. V. Dogovornoe pravo. Obshchie polozheniya. Kn. 1. 3rd ed. Moscow, 2001.

Brox H., Walker W.-D. Allgemeiner Teil des BGB. München, 2014. Rn. 320 ff.

Erman W. Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, Handkommentar, Bd I, Köln, 2011. Einl, § 104 Rn. 33.

Grazhdanskiy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii: postateynyy kommentariy k glavam 6—12. Ed. by L. V. Sannikova. Moscow, 2014.

Ilyushina M. N. Reforma otechestvennogo grazhdanskogo zakonodatelstva o nedeystvitelnosti sdelok: tseli i aktualnoe sostoyanie. Zakony Rossii: opyt, analiz, praktika, 2014, no. 5.

Jauernig O. Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, Kommentar, München, 2014. § 117 BGB Rn. 1

Karapetov A. G. Sdelki, sovershennye v protivorechii s imperativnymi normami zakona, v kontekste novoy redaktsii st. 168 GK RF. Vestnik grazhdanskogo prava, 2016, no. 5.

Korneeva L. Zh. Problemy osparivaniya prokurorom v arbitrazhnom sude sdelok, zaklyuchennykh s narusheniem zakona, voznikayushchie pri primenenii novoy redaktsii st. 168 GK. Zakonnost, 2017, no. 1.

Leenen D. BGB Allgemeiner Teil: Rechtsgeschäftslehre. Berlin; Boston, 2015. § 6 Rn. 117.

Sdelki, predstavitelstvo, iskovaya davnost: postateynyy kommentariy k statyam 153—208 Grazhdanskogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii (Elektronnoe izdanie. Redaktsiya 1.0). Ed. by A. G. Karapetov. Moscow, 2018. 558 p.

Skrypnik D. O. O nedeystvitelnosti sdelki, narushayushchey trebovaniya zakona ili inogo pravovogo akta. EZh-Yurist, 2013, no. 50.

Tuzov D. O. Lex ‘quasi’ perfecta? O novoy redaktsii st. 168 Grazhdanskogo kodeksa RF i fundamentalnykh tsivilisticheskikh ponyatiyakh. Zakon, 2015, no. 9.

Tuzov D. O. Nedopushchenie restitutsii i konfiskatsiya pri nedeystvitelnosti sdelok: teoreticheskiy ocherk. Moscow, 2008.

Wertenbruch J. BGB Allgemeiner Teil, München, 2014.

Yem V. S. O kriteriyakh nichtozhnosti sdelok v noveyshem grazhdanskom zakonodatelstve Rossii. Vestnik grazhdanskogo prava, 2014, vol. 15, no. 6.

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■ Comparative Researches of Criminal Law, Criminology and Criminal Executive Law

THE MODEL OF RESTORATIVE JUSTICE AS AN ELEMENT OF LEGAL PROTECTION FOR VICTIMS OF CRIMES IN THE UNITED STATES  Pdf 16

S. P. ANDRUSENKO, I. S. VLASOV

S. P. ANDRUSENKO, lecturer at the State University of Land Use Planning
15, Kazakov st., Moscow, Russia, 105064
E-mail: lawyer.cardio@mail.ru

I. S. VLASOV, leading research fellow of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, candidate of legal sciences, associate professor, honored lawyer of the Russian Federation
34, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 117218
E-mail: foreign1@izak.ru

The rights of victims of crime at the present stage of development of legal science receive great attention in the United States. Judicial protection of victims of crime is one of the basic mechanisms, which also operates through the system of restorative justice. The development of this institution is connected with the fact that state policy is aimed at giving the victim of the crime the right to choose the procedural mechanism for achieving justice. Restorative justice in the United States is primarily aimed at restoring the position of all participants (the victim, the perpetrator and society) that existed before the crime was committed. In this regard, the study of the concept of restorative justice, aimed at restoring the rights of victims of crime by compensating victims of crime and reconciliation with a criminal, is highly relevant.
The article deals with the protection of victims of crime through restorative justice in accordance with US law. The author analyzes in detail the mechanism for concluding an agreement within the framework of restorative justice, as well as the ratio of the agreement concluded between the victim of a crime and the criminal with the punishment imposed by the court. The article discusses the specifics of judicial practice in the United States with respect to restorative justice, as well as the effectiveness of restorative justice and its role in the US criminal justice system.
In the Russian Federation, there is no restorative justice mechanism in the form in which restorative justice operates in the United States. In this regard, the experience of the United States in the field of restorative justice is of particular importance. From this it follows that some elements of the concept of restorative justice in the United States can be implemented in the Russian legal system.

Keywords: crime victim, compensation of harm, judicial protection, restorative justice.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.1.10


REFERENCES

Ashworth A. Sentencing and Criminal Justice. 4th ed. Cambridge, 2005. 419 p.

Ashworth A. Victim Impact Statements and Sentencing. Criminal Law Review, 1993, 509 p.

Ashworth A., Horder J. Principles of Criminal Law. 7th ed. Oxford, 2013. 542 p.

Avtonomov A. S., Artemov V. Yu., Vlasov I. S. et al. Vozmeshchenie materialnogo vreda poterpevshim. Sravnitelno-pravovoe issledovanie [Crime victims redress in foreign countries: Scientific and practical guide]. A. S. Avtonomov, V. Yu. Artemov, I. S. Vlasov, etc.; ed. by S. P. Kubantsev. Moscow, 2016. 304 p.

Bazemore G. Restorative Justice and Earned Redemption: Communities, Victims and Offender Reintegration. American Behavioral Scientist, 1998, vol. 41, iss. 6, 813 p.

Bonta J., Jesseman R., Rugge T. et al. Restorative Justice and Recidivism: Promises Made, Promises Kept? Handbook of Restorative Justice: A Global Perspective. Ed. by D. Sullivan, L. Tifft. London, 2006. 567 p.

Braithwaite J., Strang H. Introduction: Restorative justice and civil society. Restorative justice and Civil Society. Ed. by J. Braithwaite, H. Strang. Cambridge, 2001. 264 p.

Bruinsma G., Weisburd D. Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. New York, 2014.

Daly K. Mind the Gap: Restorative Justice in Theory and Practice. Restorative Justice and Criminal Justice. Ed. by A. von Hirsch, J. Roberts et al. Oxford, 2002. 360 p.

MacCormick N., Garland D. Sovereign States and Vengeful Victims: The Problem of the Right to Punish. Fundamentals of Sentencing Theory. Ed. by A. Ashworth, M. Wasik. Oxford, 1998. 309 p.

Marshall T. F. Restorative Justice: An overview. A restorative Justice Reader: Texts, Sources, Context. Ed. by G. Johnstone. Portland, 2003. 510 p.

Myers B., Greene E. The Prejudicial Nature of Victim Impact Statements: Implications for Capital Sentencing Policy. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2004, no. 10(4), 886 p.

Oswald M. E., Bieneck S., Hupfeld-Heinemann J. Social Psychology of Punishment of Crime Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. 468 p.

Strang H., Sherman L. W. Restorative Justice to Reduce Victimization. Preventing Crime: What Works for Children, Offenders, Victims and Places. Ed. by B. C. Welsh, D. P. Farrington. Dordrecht, 2006. 256 p.

Zedner L. Reparation and Retribution: Are They Reconcilable? Modern Law Review, 1994, 250 p.

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THE TERMINATION OF CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS REGISTERED IN THE ELECTRONIC SYSTEM “UNIFIED REGISTER OF PRE-TRIAL INVESTIGATIONS”: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND PRACTICE  Pdf 16

N. A. BOGDANOVICH

chief specialist of the Scientific and Practical Centre for Problems of Reinforcing Law and Order of the Prosecutor General’s Office of the Republic of Belarus
76, Zakharov st., Minsk, Belarus, 220088
E-mail: bahdanovichn@mail.ru

The paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of foreign criminal procedural legislation on issues arising in theory and practice in the process the termination of criminal proceedings registered in the electronic system “Unified Register of Pre-Trial Investigations”. In particular, enough attention is paid to such countries as the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Georgia.
The purpose of the work is to study foreign experience in deciding on the termination of criminal proceedings registered in the electronic system “Unified Register of Pre-Trial Investigations” in connection with the exception of this the stage of the institution of criminal proceedings and identifying the consequences associated with such a decision “A filter of potential criminal cases” – a preliminary check and a decision on the possibility of initiating a criminal case or refusing to initiate it.
For the present work the author used formal-legal, interpretative and comparative-legal methods of scientific cognition.
In connection with the need to register in the electronic system “Unified Register of Pre-Trial Investigations” all the information on the received applications and reports, the conclusion is that in cases where, on the grounds of the relevant articles, criminal proceedings in the case cannot be continued due to the absence of an event of a crime or the innocence of a person suspected of committing it, it is subject to termination. Since there is no possibility of refusal to enter information into the electronic system “Unified Register of Pre-Trial Investigations” on the fact of the application or message, the base is formed by all reports of crimes, which entails an endless stream of procedural registration of terminated criminal cases. Even if only the results of the examination lead to the conclusion about necessity of excitation of criminal case, you need to make the information in the electronic system “Unified Register of Pre-Trial Investigations” (which actually means the recognition of the criminal case already initiated), and then assign the examination. If conclusions of the expert allow to understand that signs of a crime are absent, it is necessary to stop proceedings that leads to considerable expenses of the state resource.
We need a mechanism that would have an alternative that would not waste state and human resources. In particular, without objecting to the existence of the institution of termination of criminal proceedings, it is pointless to use the grounds of termination in a criminal case as a “panacea for all diseases”.

Keywords: prosecutor, criminal prosecution, criminal procedure, crime, investigator, investigative bodies, the termination of the criminal prosecution, the termination of the preliminary investigation, the criminal prosecution body.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.1.11


REFERENCES

Kaplina O. V. Novellizatsiya kriminalnogo protsessualnogo zakonodatelstva Ukrainy: osnovnye polozheniya [Novelization of the criminal procedural legislation of Ukraine: the main provisions]. Available at: http://www.institutemvd.by/components/com_chronoforms5/chronoforms/uploads/20160712120040_Kaplina.pdf (accessed 20.06.2018).

Kaplina O. V., Groshevoy Yu. M. Novyy etap razvitiya ugolovno-protsessualnogo zakonodatelstva Ukrainy [A new stage in the development of the criminal procedure legislation of Ukraine] (access from SPS “Consultant Plus”).

Khabrieva T. Ya., Chernogor N. N. Pravo v usloviyakh tsifrovoy realnosti [The Law in the Conditions of Digital Reality]. Zhurnal rossijskogo prava = Journal of Russian Law, 2018, no. 1, pp. 85—102.

Kurs ugolovnogo protsessa [The course of the criminal process]. Ed. by L. V. Golovko (access from SPS “Consultant Plus”).

Kuzmin A. Obzhalovanie nevneseniya svedeniy v YeRDR: sroki i osobennosti protsedury [Appeal against non-submission of information to the Unified Register of Pre-Trial Investigations: terms and features of the procedure]. Available at: http://blog.liga.net/user/ekuzmin/article/21913 (accessed 20.06.2018).

Mitryushin D. Otdelnye problemy vneseniya svedeniy ob ugolovnykh pravonarusheniyakh v Yedinyy reestr dosudebnykh rassledovaniy [Separate problems of entering information on criminal offenses into the Unified Register of Pre-Trial Investigations]. Available at: http://lexliga.com/novosti/otdelnyie-problemyi-vneseniya-svedenij-ob-ugolovnyix-pravonarusheniyax-v-edinyij-reestr-dosudebnyix-rassledovanij (accessed 20.06.2018).

Ryzhakov A. P. Vozbuzhdenie i otkaz v vozbuzhdenii ugolovnogo dela [The initiation and denial of a criminal case] (access from SPS “Consultant Plus”).

Sokolov Yu. N. Dopustimost rassmotreniya materialov ugolovnogo dela v elektronnoy forme [Admissibility of Review of Criminal Case Files in the Electronic Format]. Informatsionnoe pravo, 2017, no. 1, pp. 28—33.

Spektor Yu. UPK v deystvii: rezultaty i posledstviya [Of the Code of Criminal Procedure in action: results and consequences]. Available at: http://racurs.ua/1359-chast-2 (accessed 20.06.2018).

Suleymenov G. Zh. Problemy kolliziy norm novoy redaktsii UPK RK s osnovopolagayushchimi printsipami ugolovnogo protsessa [Problems of conflicts of norms of the new edition of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Republic of Kazakhstan with the fundamental principles of criminal proceedings]. Available at: https://www.zakon.kz/4682684-problemy-kollizijj-norm-novojj-redakcii.html (accessed 20.07.2018).

Trukhin S. A. Znachenie i perspektivy sovershenstvovaniya stadii vozbuzhdeniya ugolovnogo dela [Meaning and Prospects of Criminal Case Initiation Stage Improvement] (access from SPS “Consultant Plus”).

Tsvetkov Yu. A. “Ulybka bez kota”, ili Chto ostanetsya ot predvaritelnogo sledstviya? [“A smile without a cat”, or What remains of the preliminary investigation?]. Ugolovnoe sudoproizvodstvo, 2016, no. 2, pp. 18—23.

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FEATURES OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT STATE OF THE GERMAN MODEL OF COMPENSATION OF HARM CAUSED BY THE CRIME  Pdf 16

T. Ye. SUSHINA

associate professor at the Department of criminal procedural law of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL), candidate of legal sciences
9, Sadovaya-Kudrinskaya st., Moscow, Russia, 125993
E-mail: suschin2011@yandex.ru

Based on the study of a number of scientific studies of German authors and the analysis of statistical data on the results of the work of the courts of the Federal Republic of Germany in criminal cases at first instance, an attempt is made to conditionally identify four main stages in the development of the German model of compensation for damage caused by crime. A brief description of each of the stages is given. Also the reasons of change of approaches of the majority of representatives of the German scientific community to the solution of questions of ways of restoration by victims of crimes of the property rights in the sphere of criminal procedural activity are analyzed. Some problems of legal regulation of procedures of consideration and permission of the civil claim in the connected criminal process of Germany and in the order of civil proceedings are opened. The shortcomings of the system of state compensation payments to victims of violent crimes, their relatives and heirs, introduced by the Law of 11 May 1976 “On Compensation of Violence’s Victims”, which has been in force in Germany since 1976, are revealed. The practice of the Federal social court of Germany on verification of decisions of lower social courts concerning the consideration of disputes falling under the scope of this Law is analyzed.
On the basis of the generalization of the positive and negative experience of Germany in addressing the issues of compensation for damage caused by the crime, the conclusion is made about the inexpediency of introducing currently in the domestic legislation of legal norms obliging the state to pay monetary compensation to the victims of all crimes at the expense of budgetary funds. The author substantiates the point of view that the system of state support should pursue exclusively humanistic goal and not replace the criminal procedural and civil procedural mechanism of compensation for harm.

Keywords: remedy, a civil action, the state compensation payments, the connected criminal proceedings, the criminal procedure mechanism of compensation of harm.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.1.12

 

REFERENCES

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Dubrovin V. V. Pravovoe regulirovanie vozmeshcheniya vreda, prichinennogo prestupleniem, po zakonodatelstvu Federativnoy Respubliki Germaniya [Legal Regulation of Recovery of Damages Caused by a Crime under the Legislation of Federal Republic of Germany]. Mezhdunarodnoe ugolovnoe pravo i mezhdunarodnaya yustitsiya, 2009, no. 4, pp. 31—35.

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A TURN FOR THE WORSE IN REVISING A JUDICIAL DECISION ON APPEAL BY THE CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LEGISLATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS, REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN, UKRAINE AND RUSSIAN FEDERATION: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS  Pdf 16

I. V. KILINA

assistant at the Department of criminal procedure and criminalistics of the Perm State National Research University, postgraduate student at the Udmurt State University
15, Bukirev st., Perm, Russia, 614990
E-mail: kilinairinav@gmail.com

The article provides a comparative analysis of the principle of prohibition of turning to the worse at the stage of appeal proceedings under the current criminal procedure legislation of the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan, Ukraine and the Russian Federation.
The aim of the study is to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of regulation in the criminal procedure codes of these countries of issues relating to the operation of the legal principle of non reformatio in peius. The author sets the task of a comprehensive study in separate codes of legal norms governing the limits of the rights of the court of appeal, the criteria for turning to the worst in the criminal process, the limits of the permissibility of turning to the worst in the re-examination of the criminal case after the abolition of the sentence, the range of subjects covered by the principle of non reformatio in peius.
The author uses methods of analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, as well as the comparative legal method of scientific knowledge to solve the set goals and tasks.
As a result of the study, the author comes to the conclusion about the need to improve domestic legislation, which can be based on the positive experience of regulating the principle of prohibition of turning to the worst in the criminal procedure legislation of the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan and Ukraine. The author puts forward proposals for a clearer description of the limits of the audit activity of the court of appeal in the CPC of the Russian Federation; on fixing the criteria for turning to the worst in the CPC of the Russian Federation; established in the law rule prohibiting a turn for the worst when re-examining the criminal case by the court of first instance after the sentence is repealed if the requirement that was not contained in the appeal, the appeal submission; the extension of the list of subjects that fall under the prohibition turn for the worse, attributing to them the number of persons in respect of whom proceedings on applying compulsory measures of a medical nature, of persons in respect of whom the proceedings are conducted on a forced measure of educational influence.

Keywords: a turn for the worse, non reformatio in peius, the court of appeal, the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation, the Criminal Procedure Code of the Republic of Belarus, the Criminal Procedure Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine.

DOI: 10.12737/art.2019.1.13


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Kovtun N. N. Sudebnye stadii i proizvodstva UPK Ukrainy: sistema i vektory realizovannykh normativnykh reform [Trial stages of Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine: system and vectors of implemented law reforms]. Ugolovnoe sudoproizvodstvo, 2013, no. 2, pp. 23—30.

Trukhin S. A. Predmet i predely apellyatsionnogo razbiratelstva ugolovnykh del [Subject and confines of the criminal case investigation in the appeal courts]. Cand. diss. Moscow, 2016. 315 p.

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■ Reviews

ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS (REVIEW OF MONOGRAPHS "EUROPEAN CONVENTION IN THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION" AND "EUROPEAN CONVENTION: PROBLEMS OF INTERPRETATION AND IMPLEMENTATION”)  Pdf 16

Kh. I. HAJIYEV, E. A. FOKIN

Kh. I. HAJIYEV, head of the Department of judicial practice and law enforcement of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences

E. A. FOKIN, research fellow of the Center of foreign legislation and comparative law of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation

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BOOK REVIEW: M. SCHAER, N. I. GAIDAENKO SCHAER. HANDBOOK OF RUSSIAN BUSINESS LAW (LARCIER, 2018)  Pdf 16

N. G. SEMILYUTINA

head of the Department of civil law of foreign countries of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, doctor of legal sciences

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E. K. SAYFULLIN

undergraduate student at the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation

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